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      Dendritic Release of Vasopressin and Oxytocin

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      Journal of Neuroendocrinology

      Wiley

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          Most cited references 150

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          Action potential initiation and backpropagation in neurons of the mammalian CNS.

          Most neurons in the mammalian CNS encode and transmit information via action potentials. Knowledge of where these electrical events are initiated and how they propagate within neurons is therefore fundamental to an understanding of neuronal function. While work from the 1950s suggested that action potentials are initiated in the axon, many subsequent investigations have suggested that action potentials can also be initiated in the dendrites. Recently, experiments using simultaneous patch-pipette recordings from different locations on the same neuron have been used to address this issue directly. These studies show that the site of action potential initiation is in the axon, even when synaptic activation is powerful enough to elicit dendritic electrogenesis. Furthermore, these and other studies also show that following initiation, action potentials actively backpropagate into the dendrites of many neuronal types, providing a retrograde signal of neuronal output to the dendritic tree.
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            Dissociated central and peripheral release of vasopressin, but not oxytocin, in response to repeated swim stress: new insights into the secretory capacities of peptidergic neurons.

            To investigate the effects of an ethologically-relevant stressor on central and peripheral release of arginine vasopressin and oxytocin, we forced adult male Wistar rats to swim for 10 min and simultaneously measured the release of the two peptides (i) within the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei (by means of the microdialysis technique) and (ii) into the blood (by chronically-implanted jugular venous catheters). Forced swimming caused a significant rise in the release of arginine vasopressin and oxytocin within both the supraoptic nuclei (four-fold and three-fold, respectively) and the paraventricular nuclei (three-fold and four- to five-fold, respectively). Release patterns measured before, during and after repeated stress exposure on three consecutive days indicated that, at the level of the hypothalamus, the two neuropeptides are critically involved in the rats' stress response in a peptide-, locus- and stress-specific manner. Particularly, despite a general reduction of the recovery of the microdialysis probes over the time, the release of arginine vasopressin within the paraventricular nuclei and of oxytocin within the supraoptic nuclei tended to increase upon repeated stress exposure. Measurement of plasma peptide concentrations revealed that the central release of oxytocin was accompanied by a secretion of this peptide into the systemic circulation. In contrast, arginine vasopressin, assayed in the same plasma samples, failed to respond to the stressor. The latter finding is consistent with a dissociated release of the neuropeptide from different parts of a single neuron (soma/dendrites vs axon terminals). It provides evidence that under physiological conditions plasma hormone levels do not necessarily reflect the secretory activity of central components of the respective neuropeptidergic system.
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              Active properties of neuronal dendrites.

              Dendrites of neurons in the central nervous system are the principal sites for excitatory synaptic input. Although little is known about their function, two disparate perspectives have arisen to describe the activity patterns inherent to these diverse tree-like structures. Dendrites are thus considered either passive or active in their role in integrating synaptic inputs. This review follows the history of dendritic research from before the turn of the century to the present, with a primary focus on the hippocampus. A number of recent techniques, including high-speed fluorescence imaging and dendritic patch clamping, have provided new information and perspectives about the active properties of dendrites. The results support previous notions about the dendritic propagation of action potentials and also indicate which types of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels are expressed and functionally active in dendrites. Possible roles for the active properties of dendrites in synaptic plasticity and integration are also discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Neuroendocrinology
                Journal of Neuroendocrinology
                Wiley
                0953-8194
                1365-2826
                January 05 2002
                December 1998
                January 05 2002
                December 1998
                : 10
                : 12
                : 881-895
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Physiology, University of Edinburgh Medical School, Teviot Place, Edinburgh, UK
                Article
                10.1046/j.1365-2826.1998.00279.x
                © 1998

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