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      The Effect of Anthocyanin-Rich Foods or Extracts on Vascular Function in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials


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          Anthocyanins are of interest due to their anti-oxidative and vasodilatory properties. Earlier reviews have shown that berries and other anthocyanin rich foods or extracts can improve vascular health, however the effect of anthocyanins on vascular function has not yet been reviewed. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised-controlled trials examining anthocyanin-rich foods or extracts on measures of vascular reactivity and/or stiffness in adults. Data from 24 studies were pooled as standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Anthocyanin consumption significantly improved flow-mediated dilation (FMD) following acute (SMD: 3.92%, 95% CI: 1.47, 6.38, p = 0.002; I 2 = 91.8%) and chronic supplementation (SMD: 0.84%, 95% CI: 0.55, 1.12, p = 0.000; I 2 = 62.5%). Pulse wave velocity was improved following acute supplementation only (SMD: −1.27 m/s, 95% CI: −1.96, −0.58, p = 0.000; I 2 = 17.8%). These results support the findings of previous reviews that anthocyanin rich foods or extracts may indeed improve vascular health, particularly with respect to vascular reactivity measured by FMD. More research is required to determine the optimal dosage, and the long-term effects of consumption.

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          Chi-Square Tests for Goodness of Fit and Contingency Tables

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            Endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and risk of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease.

            Endothelial function is impaired in coronary artery disease and may contribute to its clinical manifestations. Increased oxidative stress has been linked to impaired endothelial function in atherosclerosis and may play a role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular events. This study was designed to determine whether endothelial dysfunction and vascular oxidative stress have prognostic impact on cardiovascular event rates in patients with coronary artery disease. Endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation was determined in 281 patients with documented coronary artery disease by measuring forearm blood flow responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside using venous occlusion plethysmography. The effect of the coadministration of vitamin C (24 mg/min) was assessed in a subgroup of 179 patients. Cardiovascular events, including death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, coronary angioplasty, and coronary or peripheral bypass operation, were studied during a mean follow-up period of 4.5 years. Patients experiencing cardiovascular events (n=91) had lower vasodilator responses to acetylcholine (P<0.001) and sodium nitroprusside (P<0.05), but greater benefit from vitamin C (P<0.01). The Cox proportional regression analysis for conventional risk factors demonstrated that blunted acetylcholine-induced vasodilation (P=0.001), the effect of vitamin C (P=0.001), and age (P=0.016) remained independent predictors of cardiovascular events. Endothelial dysfunction and increased vascular oxidative stress predict the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. These data support the concept that oxidative stress may contribute not only to endothelial dysfunction but also to coronary artery disease activity.
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              Brachial flow-mediated dilation predicts incident cardiovascular events in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study.

              The relationship between impaired brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and subsequent clinical cardiovascular events is not well established, especially in older adults whose FMD is often diminished. We assessed the hypothesis that FMD predicts incident cardiovascular events in a population-based cohort of older adults. FMD was measured at the 1997 to 1998 Cardiovascular Health Study clinic visit in 2792 adults aged 72 to 98 years (82.7% white, 58.6% women) recruited at 4 clinic sites in the United States. Log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the association between FMD and adjudicated cardiovascular events. A total of 674 subjects (24.1%) had an adjudicated event over the 5-year follow-up period. Event-free survival rates for cardiovascular events were significantly higher in subjects with FMD greater than the sex-specific medians than in subjects with FMD less than or equal to the sex-specific medians (78.3% versus 73.6%, log-rank P=0.006). FMD remained a significant predictor of cardiovascular events after adjustment for age, gender, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, baseline cardiovascular disease status, and total cholesterol (hazard ratio, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.83 to 0.99], P=0.02 per unit SD of FMD) but added only approximately 1% to the prognostic accuracy of the best Cox model. Brachial artery diameter was also predictive of CV events in the adjusted Cox proportional hazard model (hazard ratio, 1.12 [95% CI, 1.02 to 1.28], P=0.025) and also added approximately 1% to the accuracy of our best Cox model. FMD is a predictor of future cardiovascular events but adds very little to the prognostic accuracy of traditional cardiovascular risk scores/factors in older adults. FMD and brachial artery diameter may have similar predictive values for cardiovascular events in older adults.

                Author and article information

                20 August 2017
                August 2017
                : 9
                : 8
                : 908
                [1 ]School of Pharmacy & Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5000, Australia; failc001@ 123456mymail.unisa.edu.au
                [2 ]School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5000, Australia; Kade.Davison@ 123456unisa.edu.au
                [3 ]Naturex-DBS LLC, R&D department, South Hackensack, NJ 07606, USA; e.fromentin@ 123456naturex-dbs.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Alison.Hill@ 123456unisa.edu.au ; Tel.: +61-8-830-21817
                Author information
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 29 July 2017
                : 16 August 2017

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                vascular function,anthocyanins,flow-mediated dilation,vascular reactivity,vascular stiffness,cardiovascular,berries


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