15
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Role of CFTR in epithelial physiology

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Salt and fluid absorption and secretion are two processes that are fundamental to epithelial function and whole body fluid homeostasis, and as such are tightly regulated in epithelial tissues. The CFTR anion channel plays a major role in regulating both secretion and absorption in a diverse range of epithelial tissues, including the airways, the GI and reproductive tracts, sweat and salivary glands. It is not surprising then that defects in CFTR function are linked to disease, including life-threatening secretory diarrhoeas, such as cholera, as well as the inherited disease, cystic fibrosis (CF), one of the most common life-limiting genetic diseases in Caucasian populations. More recently, CFTR dysfunction has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the hyper-responsiveness in asthma, underscoring its fundamental role in whole body health and disease. CFTR regulates many mechanisms in epithelial physiology, such as maintaining epithelial surface hydration and regulating luminal pH. Indeed, recent studies have identified luminal pH as an important arbiter of epithelial barrier function and innate defence, particularly in the airways and GI tract. In this chapter, we will illustrate the different operational roles of CFTR in epithelial function by describing its characteristics in three different tissues: the airways, the pancreas, and the sweat gland.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 202

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          TMEM16A confers receptor-activated calcium-dependent chloride conductance.

          Calcium (Ca(2+))-activated chloride channels are fundamental mediators in numerous physiological processes including transepithelial secretion, cardiac and neuronal excitation, sensory transduction, smooth muscle contraction and fertilization. Despite their physiological importance, their molecular identity has remained largely unknown. Here we show that transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A, which we also call anoctamin 1 (ANO1)) is a bona fide Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel that is activated by intracellular Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)-mobilizing stimuli. With eight putative transmembrane domains and no apparent similarity to previously characterized channels, ANO1 defines a new family of ionic channels. The biophysical properties as well as the pharmacological profile of ANO1 are in full agreement with native Ca(2+)-activated chloride currents. ANO1 is expressed in various secretory epithelia, the retina and sensory neurons. Furthermore, knockdown of mouse Ano1 markedly reduced native Ca(2+)-activated chloride currents as well as saliva production in mice. We conclude that ANO1 is a candidate Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel that mediates receptor-activated chloride currents in diverse physiological processes.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            TMEM16A, a membrane protein associated with calcium-dependent chloride channel activity.

            Calcium-dependent chloride channels are required for normal electrolyte and fluid secretion, olfactory perception, and neuronal and smooth muscle excitability. The molecular identity of these membrane proteins is still unclear. Treatment of bronchial epithelial cells with interleukin-4 (IL-4) causes increased calcium-dependent chloride channel activity, presumably by regulating expression of the corresponding genes. We performed a global gene expression analysis to identify membrane proteins that are regulated by IL-4. Transfection of epithelial cells with specific small interfering RNA against each of these proteins shows that TMEM16A, a member of a family of putative plasma membrane proteins with unknown function, is associated with calcium-dependent chloride current, as measured with halide-sensitive fluorescent proteins, short-circuit current, and patch-clamp techniques. Our results indicate that TMEM16A is an intrinsic constituent of the calcium-dependent chloride channel. Identification of a previously unknown family of membrane proteins associated with chloride channel function will improve our understanding of chloride transport physiopathology and allow for the development of pharmacological tools useful for basic research and drug development.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Expression cloning of TMEM16A as a calcium-activated chloride channel subunit.

              Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) are major regulators of sensory transduction, epithelial secretion, and smooth muscle contraction. Other crucial roles of CaCCs include action potential generation in Characean algae and prevention of polyspermia in frog egg membrane. None of the known molecular candidates share properties characteristic of most CaCCs in native cells. Using Axolotl oocytes as an expression system, we have identified TMEM16A as the Xenopus oocyte CaCC. The TMEM16 family of "transmembrane proteins with unknown function" is conserved among eukaryotes, with family members linked to tracheomalacia (mouse TMEM16A), gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (human TMEM16E), aberrant X segregation (a Drosophila TMEM16 family member), and increased sodium tolerance (yeast TMEM16). Moreover, mouse TMEM16A and TMEM16B yield CaCCs in Axolotl oocytes and mammalian HEK293 cells and recapitulate the broad CaCC expression. The identification of this new family of ion channels may help the development of CaCC modulators for treating diseases including hypertension and cystic fibrosis.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +44 191 208 5476 , vinciane.saint-criq@newcastle.ac.uk
                +44 191 208 7592 , m.a.gray@newcastle.ac.uk
                Journal
                Cell Mol Life Sci
                Cell. Mol. Life Sci
                Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                1420-682X
                1420-9071
                6 October 2016
                6 October 2016
                2017
                : 74
                : 1
                : 93-115
                Affiliations
                Epithelial Research Group, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, University Medical School, Newcastle University, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH UK
                Article
                2391
                10.1007/s00018-016-2391-y
                5209439
                27714410
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Categories
                Multi-Author Review
                Custom metadata
                © Springer International Publishing 2017

                Molecular biology

                cftr, physiology, epithelial transport, chloride, bicarbonate

                Comments

                Comment on this article