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      A mitochondrial genome sequence of a hominin from Sima de los Huesos

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          Abstract

          Excavations of a complex of caves in the Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain have unearthed hominin fossils that range in age from the early Pleistocene to the Holocene. One of these sites, the 'Sima de los Huesos' ('pit of bones'), has yielded the world's largest assemblage of Middle Pleistocene hominin fossils, consisting of at least 28 individuals dated to over 300,000 years ago. The skeletal remains share a number of morphological features with fossils classified as Homo heidelbergensis and also display distinct Neanderthal-derived traits. Here we determine an almost complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a hominin from Sima de los Huesos and show that it is closely related to the lineage leading to mitochondrial genomes of Denisovans, an eastern Eurasian sister group to Neanderthals. Our results pave the way for DNA research on hominins from the Middle Pleistocene.

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          A high-coverage genome sequence from an archaic Denisovan individual.

          We present a DNA library preparation method that has allowed us to reconstruct a high-coverage (30×) genome sequence of a Denisovan, an extinct relative of Neandertals. The quality of this genome allows a direct estimation of Denisovan heterozygosity indicating that genetic diversity in these archaic hominins was extremely low. It also allows tentative dating of the specimen on the basis of "missing evolution" in its genome, detailed measurements of Denisovan and Neandertal admixture into present-day human populations, and the generation of a near-complete catalog of genetic changes that swept to high frequency in modern humans since their divergence from Denisovans.
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            Is Open Access

            Double indexing overcomes inaccuracies in multiplex sequencing on the Illumina platform

            Due to the increasing throughput of current DNA sequencing instruments, sample multiplexing is necessary for making economical use of available sequencing capacities. A widely used multiplexing strategy for the Illumina Genome Analyzer utilizes sample-specific indexes, which are embedded in one of the library adapters. However, this and similar multiplex approaches come with a risk of sample misidentification. By introducing indexes into both library adapters (double indexing), we have developed a method that reveals the rate of sample misidentification within current multiplex sequencing experiments. With ~0.3% these rates are orders of magnitude higher than expected and may severely confound applications in cancer genomics and other fields requiring accurate detection of rare variants. We identified the occurrence of mixed clusters on the flow as the predominant source of error. The accuracy of sample identification is further impaired if indexed oligonucleotides are cross-contaminated or if indexed libraries are amplified in bulk. Double-indexing eliminates these problems and increases both the scope and accuracy of multiplex sequencing on the Illumina platform.
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              Patterns of damage in genomic DNA sequences from a Neandertal.

              High-throughput direct sequencing techniques have recently opened the possibility to sequence genomes from Pleistocene organisms. Here we analyze DNA sequences determined from a Neandertal, a mammoth, and a cave bear. We show that purines are overrepresented at positions adjacent to the breaks in the ancient DNA, suggesting that depurination has contributed to its degradation. We furthermore show that substitutions resulting from miscoding cytosine residues are vastly overrepresented in the DNA sequences and drastically clustered in the ends of the molecules, whereas other substitutions are rare. We present a model where the observed substitution patterns are used to estimate the rate of deamination of cytosine residues in single- and double-stranded portions of the DNA, the length of single-stranded ends, and the frequency of nicks. The results suggest that reliable genome sequences can be obtained from Pleistocene organisms.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                January 2014
                December 4 2013
                January 2014
                : 505
                : 7483
                : 403-406
                Article
                10.1038/nature12788
                24305051
                44d740c7-d402-48a6-a8c1-90dc9abccfc9
                © 2014

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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