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      Chemical Composition, Biological Activity, and Health-Promoting Effects of Withania somnifera for Pharma-Food Industry Applications

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          Abstract

          The Withania genus comes from the Solanaceae family and includes around 23 species, spread over some areas of the Mediterranean, Asia, and East Africa. Widely used in traditional medicine for thousands of years, these plants are rich in secondary metabolites, with special emphasis on steroidal lactones, named withanolides which are used as ingredients in numerous formulations for a plethora of diseases, such as asthma, diabetes, arthritis, impotence, amnesia, hypertension, anxiety, stress, cancer, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases, and many others. Among them, Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is the most widely addressed species from a pharmacological and agroindustrial point of view. In this sense, this review provides an overview of the folk uses, phytochemical composition, and biological activity, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activity of W. somnifera, although more recently other species have also been increasingly investigated. In addition, their health-promoting effects, i.e., antistress, anxiolytic, adaptogenic, antirheumatoid arthritis, chemoprotective, and cardiorespiratory-enhancing abilities, along with safety and adverse effects are also discussed.

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          A molecular phylogeny of the Solanaceae

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            Effect of extraction methods on yield, phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of Withania somnifera

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              Steroidal Lactones from Withania somnifera , an Ancient Plant for Novel Medicine

              Withania somnifera, commonly known as Ashwagandha, is an important medicinal plant that has been used in Ayurvedic and indigenous medicine for over 3,000 years. In view of its varied therapeutic potential, it has also been the subject of considerable modern scientific attention. The major chemical constituents of the Withania genus, the withanolides, are a group of naturally occurring C28-steroidal lactone triterpenoids built on an intact or rearranged ergostane framework, in which C-22 and C-26 are appropriately oxidized to form a six-membered lactone ring. In recent years, numerous pharmacological investigations have been carried out into the components of W. somnifera extracts. We present here an overview of the chemical structures of triterpenoid components and their biological activity, focusing on two novel activities, tumor inhibition and antiangiogenic properties of withaferin A and the effects of withanolide A on Alzheimer's disease. The most recent attempts in biotechnological production of withanolides are also discussed.
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                Author and article information

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                Journal
                Journal of Food Quality
                Journal of Food Quality
                Hindawi Limited
                1745-4557
                0146-9428
                December 29 2021
                December 29 2021
                : 2021
                : 1-14
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Phytochemistry Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [2 ]Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Arturo Prat, Avda. Arturo Prat 2120, Iquique 1110939, Chile
                [3 ]Department of Pharmacognosy and Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [4 ]Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [5 ]Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation–State Research Institute, Czartoryskich 8, Puławy 24-100, Poland
                [6 ]Molecular and Applied Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700019, India
                [7 ]Department of Botany, Fakir Chand College, Diamond Harbour, West Bengal 743331, India
                [8 ]Department of Food Science, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
                [9 ]Gazi University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy, Ankara 06330, Turkey
                [10 ]Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 5-1 Oe-honmachi, Kumamoto 862-0973, Japan
                [11 ]Department Food Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, Istanbul 34469, Turkey
                [12 ]Bioactive Research & Innovation Food Manufacturing Industry Trade Ltd. Co., Maslak, Istanbul 34469, Turkey
                [13 ]Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepción, Concepción 4070386, Chile
                [14 ]Centre for Healthy Living, University of Concepción, Concepción 4070386, Chile
                [15 ]Department of Agriculture and Food Systems, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne 3010, Australia
                [16 ]Pharmaceutical Care Department, Ministry of National Guard-Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [17 ]Department of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Amrita School of Agricultural Sciences, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Coimbatore 642109, India
                [18 ]Chemical and Biochemical Processing Division, ICAR–Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology, Mumbai 400019, India
                [19 ]Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
                [20 ]Institute for Research and Innovation in Health (i3S), University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
                [21 ]Institute of Research and Advanced Training in Health Sciences and Technologies (CESPU), Rua Central de Gandra, 1317, Gandra 4585-116, Portugal
                [22 ]TOXRUN–Toxicology Research Unit, University Institute of Health Sciences, CESPU, CRL, 4585-116 Gandra, Portugal
                [23 ]Department of Clinical Oncology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kowloon, Hong Kong
                Article
                10.1155/2021/8985179
                44d78e91-7806-4b81-ae86-ce1a25b82a4c
                © 2021

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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