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      First Hominoid from the Late Miocene of the Irrawaddy Formation (Myanmar)

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          Abstract

          For over a century, a Neogene fossil mammal fauna has been known in the Irrawaddy Formation in central Myanmar. Unfortunately, the lack of accurately located fossiliferous sites and the absence of hominoid fossils have impeded paleontological studies. Here we describe the first hominoid found in Myanmar together with a Hipparion ( s.l.) associated mammal fauna from Irrawaddy Formation deposits dated between 10.4 and 8.8 Ma by biochronology and magnetostratigraphy. This hominoid documents a new species of Khoratpithecus, increasing thereby the Miocene diversity of southern Asian hominoids. The composition of the associated fauna as well as stable isotope data on Hipparion ( s.l.) indicate that it inhabited an evergreen forest in a C3-plant environment. Our results enlighten that late Miocene hominoids were more regionally diversified than other large mammals, pointing towards regionally-bounded evolution of the representatives of this group in Southeast Asia. The Irrawaddy Formation, with its extensive outcrops and long temporal range, has a great potential for improving our knowledge of hominoid evolution in Asia.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2011
                20 April 2011
                : 6
                : 4
                : e17065
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institut International de Paléoprimatologie et de Paléontologie Humaine, UMR CNRS 6046, Université de Poitiers, Poitiers, France
                [2 ]Department of Geology, Dagon University, Yangon, Myanmar
                [3 ]Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution de Montpellier, Université Montpellier 2, Montpellier, France
                [4 ]Department of Archaeology, National Museum and Library, Mandalay, Myanmar
                [5 ]Myanmar Geosciences Society, Yangon, Myanmar
                [6 ]Department of Geology, University of Yangon, Yangon, Myanmar
                [7 ]Paleontology Section, Department of Mineral Resources, Bangkok, Thailand
                [8 ]Universität Tübingen, Institut für Geowissenschaften, Biogeologie, Tübingen, Germany
                [9 ]Bangkok, Thailand
                [10 ]European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France
                University of Oxford, United Kingdom
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: JJJ ANS OC PC EGE RL AM AAK HS STT KLO YC. Performed the experiments: JJJ ANS OC PC EGE RL AM AAK HS STT KLO MR YC MB. Analyzed the data: JJJ ANS OC PC EGE FG HB YC MB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: FG HB KC PT. Wrote the paper: JJJ OC PC EGE FG HB.

                Article
                PONE-D-10-04319
                10.1371/journal.pone.0017065
                3080362
                21533131
                44e20582-892e-4a33-9aaf-8d5d620c6909
                Jaeger et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                History
                : 3 October 2010
                : 31 December 2010
                Page count
                Pages: 14
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology
                Evolutionary Biology
                Paleontology
                Paleontology
                Zoology
                Comparative Anatomy
                Mammalogy
                Earth Sciences
                Paleontology
                Vertebrate Paleontology
                Social and Behavioral Sciences
                Anthropology
                Paleoanthropology

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