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      Canine visceral leishmaniasis in the metropolitan area of São Paulo: Pintomyia fischeri as potential vector of Leishmania infantum Translated title: Leishmaniose viscérale canine dans la région métropolitaine de São Paulo : Pintomyia fischeri comme vecteur potentiel de Leishmania infantum

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          American visceral leishmaniasis is a zoonosis caused by Leishmania infantum and transmitted mainly by Lutzomyia longipalpis. However, canine cases have been reported in the absence of this species in the Greater São Paulo region, where Pintomyia fischeri and Migonemyia migonei are the predominant species. This raises the suspicion that they could be acting as vectors. Therefore, this study sought to investigate specific vector capacity parameters of these species and to compare them with those of Lu. longipalpis s.l. Among these parameters the blood feeding rate, the survival, and the susceptibility to the development of Le. infantum were evaluated for the three species, and the attractiveness of dogs to Pi. fischeri and Mg. migonei was evaluated. The estimated interval between blood meals was shorter for Lu. longipalpis s.l, followed by Pi. fischeri and Mg. migonei. The infection rate with Le. infantum flagellates in Lu. longipalpis was 9.8%, in Pi. fischeri 4.8%, and in Mg. migonei nil. The respective infective life expectancies (days) of Lu. longipalpis, Mg. migonei, and Pi. fischeri were 2.4, 1.94, and 1.68. Both Pi. fischeri and Mg. migonei were captured in the kennel with a predominance (95%) of Pi. fischeri. Considering the great attractiveness of dogs to Pi. fischeri, its susceptibility to infection by Le. infantum, infective life expectancies, and predominance in Greater São Paulo, this study presents evidence of Pi. fischeri as a potential vector of this parasite in the region.

          Translated abstract

          La leishmaniose viscérale américaine est une zoonose causée par Leishmania infantum et transmise principalement par Lutzomyia longipalpis. Cependant, des cas canins ont été rapportés dans la région de São Paulo en l’absence de cette espèce, avec Pintomyia fischeri et Migonemyia migonei comme espèces prédominantes, ce qui suggère qu’elles pourraient agir comme vecteurs. Par conséquent, cette étude a cherché à étudier certains paramètres de capacité vectorielle de ces espèces et de les comparer avec ceux de Lu. Longipalpis s.l. Parmi ces paramètres, le taux d’alimentation sanguin, la survie et la susceptibilité au développement de Le. infantum ont été évalués pour les trois espèces, et l’attrait des chiens a été évalué pour Pi. fischeri et Mg. migonei. L’intervalle estimé entre les repas sanguins était plus court pour Lu. longipalpis s.l., suivi par Pi. fischeri et Mg. migonei. Le taux d’infection par des formes flagellées de Le. infantum était de 9.8 % chez Lu. longipalpis, 4.8 % chez Pi. fischeri, et néant chez Mg. migonei. Les espérances de vie infectieuses respectives de Lu. longipalpis, Mg. migonei et Pi. fischeri étaient 2.4, 1.94 et 1.68 jours. Les deux espèces Pi. fischeri et Mg. migonei ont été capturées dans les chenils avec une prédominance (95 %) pour Pi. fischeri. Considérant la grande attractivité des chiens pour Pi. fischeri, sa susceptibilité à l’infection par Le. infantum, son espérance de vie infectieuse et sa prédominance dans le Grand São Paulo, cette étude suggère que Pi. fischeri est vecteur potentiel de ce parasite dans cette région.

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          Most cited references 49

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          Transmission of Leishmania metacyclic promastigotes by phlebotomine sand flies

           Paul A Bates (2007)
          A thorough understanding of the transmission mechanism of any infectious agent is crucial to implementing an effective intervention strategy. Here, our current understanding of the mechanisms that Leishmania parasites use to ensure their transmission from sand fly vectors by bite is reviewed. The most important mechanism is the creation of a “blocked fly” resulting from the secretion of promastigote secretory gel (PSG) by the parasites in the anterior midgut. This forces the sand fly to regurgitate PSG before it can bloodfeed, thereby depositing both PSG and infective metacyclic promastigotes in the skin of a mammalian host. Other possible factors in transmission are considered: damage to the stomodeal valve; occurrence of parasites in the salivary glands; and excretion of parasites from the anus of infected sand flies. Differences in the transmission mechanisms employed by parasites in the three subgenera, Leishmania, Viannia and Sauroleishmania are also addressed.
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            Phlebotomine vectors of the leishmaniases: a review.

             R Killick (1989)
            An account is given of work published during the past 10 years incriminating species of phlebotomine sandflies as vectors of Leishmania species which infect man. An assessment is made of the degrees of certainty of the vectorial roles of eighty-one species and subspecies of sandflies (thirty-seven Old World and forty-four New World) in the transmission of twenty-nine leishmanial parasites of mammals. At least one species of sandfly is considered to be a proven vector of each of ten parasites. Of the eighty-one sandfly taxa, evidence is judged to be sufficient to incriminate nineteen as proven vectors (eleven Phlebotomus species and eight Lutzomyia species or subspecies) and evidence for a further fourteen (nine Phlebotomus species and five Lutzomyia species or subspecies) is considered to be strong. The suggested criteria for incrimination of a vector are anthropophily and common infection with the same leishmanial parasite as that found in man in the same place. More weight should be given to natural infections persisting after the digestion of a bloodmeal than those in the presence of blood. Supporting evidence is a concordance in the distribution of the fly and the disease in man, proof that the fly feeds regularly on the reservoir host, a flourishing development of the parasite in infected flies and the experimental transmission of the parasite by the bite of the fly.
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              Canine leishmaniasis.

              Canine leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi, in America) and is transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies. Infected dogs constitute the main domestic reservoir of the parasite and play a key role in transmission to humans, in which the parasite produces visceral leishmaniasis. The increasing awareness that control of the human disease depends on effective control of canine leishmaniasis has promoted, in the last few years, research into leishmanial infection in dogs. Newly available specific reagents and molecular tools have been applied to the detailed investigation of canine leishmaniasis and important advances have been made in elucidating the epidemiology and pathology of the disease. These new findings have led to better understanding of the disease, and have also helped in the development of new diagnostic methods and control measures against the infection, such as insecticide-impregnated collars for dogs, new drugs and treatment protocols, and second generation vaccines, with the hope of not only reducing the heavy burden of the disease among dogs but also reducing the incidence of human visceral leishmaniasis.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                30 January 2017
                : 24
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2017/01 )
                [1 ] Postgraduate Program in Public Health, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo – USP São Paulo 01246-904 SP Brazil
                [2 ] Department of Pathology, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul-UFMS Campo Grande 79070-900 MS Brazil
                [3 ] Center of Control of Zoonosis of Bauru Municipality 17032-340 SP Brazil
                [4 ] Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of São Paulo São Paulo 05403-000 SP Brazil
                [5 ] Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo – USP São Paulo 01246-904 SP Brazil
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: galvisfregao@ 123456gmail.com

                Special Issue – ISOPS IX – International Symposium on Phlebotomine Sandflies.

                Invited Editors: Jérôme Depaquit, Bernard Pesson, Denis Augot, James Gordon Campbell Hamilton, Phillip Lawyer, and Nicole Léger

                parasite160104 10.1051/parasite/2017002
                © F. Galvis-Ovallos et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 51, Pages: 10
                Special Issue - ISOPS 9 - International Symposium on Phlebotomine Sandflies
                Research Article


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