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      Clinical impact of pre-admission antithrombotic therapy in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a multicenter observational study

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          Abstract

          Little is still known about the clinical features associated with the occurrence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in hospitalized patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence of pre-admission antithrombotic therapies in patients with COVID-19 and to investigate the potential association between antithrombotic therapy and ARDS, as disease clinical presentation, or in-hospital mortality.

          We enrolled 192 consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to emergency department of five Italian hospitals. The study population was divided in two groups according to the evidence of ARDS at chest computed tomography at admission. Propensity score weighting adjusted regression analysis was performed to assess the risk ARDS at admission, and death during hospitalization, in patients treated or not with antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents.

          ARDS was reported in 73 cases (38%), who showed more likely hypertension compared to those without ARDS (57.8 % vs 49.6 %; P = 0.005). Thirty-five patients (18.5%) died during the hospitalization. Not survived COVID-19 patients showed a statistically significant increased age (77 ± 8.31 vs 65.57 ± 8.31; P = 0.001), hypertension (77.1% vs 53.5%; P = 0.018) and coronary artery disease prevalence (28.6% vs 10.2%; P = 0.009). Both unadjusted and adjusted regression analyses showed no difference in the risk of ARDS at admission, or death during hospitalization, between patients treated or not with antiplatelets or anticoagulants.

          Pre-admission antithrombotic therapy, both antiplatelet and anticoagulant, does not seem to show a protective effect in severe forms of COVID-19 with ARDS at presentation and rapidly evolving toward death.

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          Prevalence of diagnosed atrial fibrillation in adults: national implications for rhythm management and stroke prevention: the AnTicoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation (ATRIA) Study.

          Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia in elderly persons and a potent risk factor for stroke. However, recent prevalence and projected future numbers of persons with atrial fibrillation are not well described. To estimate prevalence of atrial fibrillation and US national projections of the numbers of persons with atrial fibrillation through the year 2050. Cross-sectional study of adults aged 20 years or older who were enrolled in a large health maintenance organization in California and who had atrial fibrillation diagnosed between July 1, 1996, and December 31, 1997. Prevalence of atrial fibrillation in the study population of 1.89 million; projected number of persons in the United States with atrial fibrillation between 1995-2050. A total of 17 974 adults with diagnosed atrial fibrillation were identified during the study period; 45% were aged 75 years or older. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation was 0.95% (95% confidence interval, 0.94%-0.96%). Atrial fibrillation was more common in men than in women (1.1% vs 0.8%; P<.001). Prevalence increased from 0.1% among adults younger than 55 years to 9.0% in persons aged 80 years or older. Among persons aged 50 years or older, prevalence of atrial fibrillation was higher in whites than in blacks (2.2% vs 1.5%; P<.001). We estimate approximately 2.3 million US adults currently have atrial fibrillation. We project that this will increase to more than 5.6 million (lower bound, 5.0; upper bound, 6.3) by the year 2050, with more than 50% of affected individuals aged 80 years or older. Our study confirms that atrial fibrillation is common among older adults and provides a contemporary basis for estimates of prevalence in the United States. The number of patients with atrial fibrillation is likely to increase 2.5-fold during the next 50 years, reflecting the growing proportion of elderly individuals. Coordinated efforts are needed to face the increasing challenge of optimal stroke prevention and rhythm management in patients with atrial fibrillation.
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            Clotting Factors in COVID-19: Epidemiological Association and Prognostic Values in Different Clinical Presentations in an Italian Cohort

            Introduction: A novel highly pathogenic human coronavirus able to induce severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has been recently recognized as the cause of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, which has spread rapidly from China to other countries. Little is known about laboratory prognostic markers in COVID-19 patients. The aim of our study was to describe the basic clotting parameters in COVID-19 patients and their prognostic role in different clinical forms of the disease. Material and Methods: We enrolled 67 COVID-19 patients admitted to the Emergency Department. A cohort of 67 age- and sex-matched non-COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory illness was used as a control group. For all patients, platelet count (PLT), prothrombin time (PT), activated thromboplastin time (aPTT), C-reactive protein (PCR), fibrinogen, and D-dimer were determined. The COVID-19 population was divided in two groups according to the presence or absence of SARS. The clotting factors values were compared between the groups. Results: At admission, the COVID-19 patients showed statistically significant increased levels of fibrinogen (601.5 (480–747) vs. 455 (352.5–588.5) mg/dL; p = 0.0000064), and a higher percentage of patients had fibrinogen levels >400 mg/dL (86% vs.58%; p = 0.0054) compared to the control group. The levels of fibrinogen were higher in COVID-19 patients with SARS compared to those without SARS (747 (600.0–834.0) vs. 567 (472.5–644.50); p = 0.0003). Conclusion: Fibrinogen seems to increase early in COVID-19 patients and may be used as a risk stratification marker for the early detection of a subgroup of COVID-19 patient at increased risk to develop SARS, who might benefit from a different and thorough clinical surveillance and treatment.
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              Author and article information

              Contributors
              Journal
              Pharmacol Res
              Pharmacol. Res
              Pharmacological Research
              Elsevier Ltd.
              1043-6618
              1096-1186
              29 May 2020
              29 May 2020
              Affiliations
              [a ]Chair of Cardiology, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli" – Monaldi and Cotugno Hospital, Naples, Italy
              [b ]Division of Cardiology, Eboli Hospital, Salerno, Italy
              [c ]Division of Cardiology, San Giuliano Hospital, Naples, Italy
              [d ]Division of Cardiology, Cardiovascular and Thoracic Department, San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi d’Aragona University Hospital, Salerno, Italy
              [e ]Cardiology Unit, Health Authority Bergamo East, Italy
              [f ]Cardiology Unit, Rivoli Hospital, Turin, Italy
              [g ]Thrombosis and Hemorrhagic Center, Humanitas Research Hospital and Humanitas University, Rozzano, Italy
              [h ]Medicine Unit, Fatebenefratelli Hospital of Naples, Naples, Italy
              Author notes
              [* ]Corresponding author at: Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Monaldi Hospital, P.zzale Ettore Ruggeri, 80131 Naples, Italy. v.p.russo@ 123456libero.it
              Article
              S1043-6618(20)31273-1 104965
              10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104965
              7256617
              © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

              Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

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