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      HTLV-1 HBZ Viral Protein: A Key Player in HTLV-1 Mediated Diseases

      , ,

      Frontiers in Microbiology

      Frontiers Media S.A.

      HTLV-1, ATL, HAM/TSP, HBZ, Tax-1

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          Abstract

          Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is an oncogenic human retrovirus that has infected 10–15 million people worldwide. After a long latency, 3–5% of infected individuals will develop either a severe malignancy of CD4+ T cells, known as Adult T-cell Leukemia (ATL) or a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease of the nervous system designated Tropical Spastic Paraparesis/HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy (HAM/TSP). The precise mechanism behind HTLV-1 pathogenesis still remains elusive. Two viral regulatory proteins, Tax-1 and HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ) are thought to play a critical role in HTLV-1-associated diseases. Tax-1 is mainly involved in the onset of neoplastic transformation and in elicitation of the host’s inflammatory responses; its expression may be lost during cell clonal proliferation and oncogenesis. Conversely, HBZ remains constantly expressed in all patients with ATL, playing a role in the proliferation and maintenance of leukemic cells. Recent studies have shown that the subcellular distribution of HBZ protein differs in the two pathologies: it is nuclear with a speckled-like pattern in leukemic cells and is cytoplasmic in cells from HAM/TSP patients. Thus, HBZ expression and distribution could be critical in the progression of HTLV-1 infection versus the leukemic state or the inflammatory disease. Here, we reviewed recent findings on the role of HBZ in HTLV-1 related diseases, highlighting the new perspectives open by the possibility of studying the physiologic expression of endogenous protein in primary infected cells.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infectivity and cellular transformation.

          It has been 30 years since a 'new' leukaemia termed adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) was described in Japan, and more than 25 years since the isolation of the retrovirus, human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), that causes this disease. We discuss HTLV-1 infectivity and how the HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein initiates transformation by creating a cellular environment favouring aneuploidy and clastogenic DNA damage. We also explore the contribution of a newly discovered protein and RNA on the HTLV-1 minus strand, HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ), to the maintenance of virus-induced leukaemia.
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            Isolation and characterization of retrovirus from cell lines of human adult T-cell leukemia and its implication in the disease.

            A retrovirus (ATLV) was unequivocally demonstrated in human adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell lines by density (1.152-1.155 g/cm3) in a sucrose gradient, reverse transcriptase activity insensitive to actinomycin D, RNA labeled with [3H]uridine, and specific proteins with molecular weights of 11,000, 14,000, 17,000, 24,000, and 45,000. Furthermore, cDNA prepared by endogenous reaction with detergent-treated virions hybridized to 35S RNA containing poly(A), which was inducible by IdUrd treatment of a T-cell line derived from leukemic cells of the ATL, and the integrated form of ATLV proviral DNA was detected in T-cell lines derived from ATL. The ATLV proviral DNA was also detected in fresh peripheral lymphocytes from all five patients with ATL tested so far but not in those from healthy adults. On the other hand, ATLV protein of Mr 42,000 was found to be at least one of the ATL-associated antigen(s) that were previously detected in ATL-leukemic cells by all sera from patients with ATL. These findings on the close association of ATLV protein and proviral DNA with ATL are direct evidence for the possible involvement of the retrovirus ATLV in leukemogenesis of human ATL.
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              Diagnostic criteria and classification of clinical subtypes of adult T-cell leukaemia-lymphoma. A report from the Lymphoma Study Group (1984-87).

               M. Shimoyama (1991)
              The following diagnostic criteria are proposed to classify four clinical subtypes of HTLV-1 associated adult T-cell leukaemia-lymphoma (ATL): (1) Smouldering type, 5% or more abnormal lymphocytes of T-cell nature in PB, normal lymphocyte level (less than 4 x 10(9)/l), no hypercalcaemia (corrected calcium level less than 2.74 mmol/l), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) value of up to 1.5 x the normal upper limit, no lymphadenopathy, no involvement of liver, spleen, central nervous system (CNS), bone and gastrointestinal tract, and neither ascites nor pleural effusion. Skin and pulmonary lesion(s) may be present. In case of less than 5% abnormal T-lymphocytes in PB, at least one of histologically-proven skin and pulmonary lesions should be present. (2) Chronic type, absolute lymphocytosis (4 x 10(9)/l or more) with T-lymphocytosis more than 3.5 x 10(9)/l, LDH value up to twice the normal upper limit, no hypercalcaemia, no involvement of CNS, bone and gastrointestinal tract, and neither ascites nor pleural effusion. Lymphadenopathy and involvement of liver, spleen, skin, and lung may be present, and 5% or more abnormal T-lymphocytes are seen in PB in most cases . (3) Lymphoma type, no lymphocytosis, 1% or less abnormal T-lymphocytes, and histologically-proven lymphadenopathy with or without extranodal lesions. (4) Acute type, remaining ATL patients who have usually leukaemic manifestation and tumour lesions, but are not classified as any of the three other types. A total of 818 ATL patients with a mean age of 57 years, newly diagnosed from 1983 to 1987, were analysed by this criteria. There were 448 males and 370 females, and 253 were still alive with a median follow-up time of 13.3 months from diagnosis, while 565 were dead with a median survival time (MST) of 5.4 months. MST was 6.2 months for acute type, 10.2 months for lymphoma type, 24.3 months for chronic type, and not yet reached for smouldering type. Projected 2- and 4-year survival rates were 16.7% and 5.0% for acute type, 21.3% and 5.7% for lymphoma type, 52.4% and 26.9% for chronic type, 77.7% and 62.8% for smouldering type, respectively. Distinct clinical features and laboratory findings of each clinical subtype are described.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-302X
                22 December 2017
                2017
                : 8
                Affiliations
                Laboratories of General Pathology and Immunology “Giovanna Tosi”, Department of Medicine and Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Insubria , Varese, Italy
                Author notes

                Edited by: Umberto Bertazzoni, University of Verona, Italy

                Reviewed by: Jean-Marie Peloponese, UMR9004 Institut de Recherche en Infectiologie de Montpellier (IRIM), France; Masao Matsuoka, Kyoto University, Japan

                *Correspondence: Roberto S. Accolla, roberto.accolla@ 123456uninsubria.it

                This article was submitted to Virology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Article
                10.3389/fmicb.2017.02615
                5744428
                Copyright © 2017 Baratella, Forlani and Accolla.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 53, Pages: 6, Words: 0
                Funding
                Funded by: Università degli Studi dell'Insubria 10.13039/501100005389
                Categories
                Microbiology
                Mini Review

                Microbiology & Virology

                htlv-1, atl, ham/tsp, hbz, tax-1

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