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      Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid: diagnosis of a rare tumor using ultrasonography, cytology, and intraoperative frozen sections


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          The goal of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological and imaging features of thyroid nodules surgically diagnosed as hyaline trabecular tumor (HTT), and to assess the role of cytology and frozen sections (FS) in the diagnosis of HTT.


          This study included 21 thyroid nodules in 21 patients treated from August 2005 to March 2015 (mean age, 53.3 years) who were either diagnosed as HTT or had HTT suggested as a possible diagnosis based on cytology, FS, or the final pathology report. Patients’ medical records were retrospectively reviewed for cytopathologic results and outcomes during the course of follow-up. Sonograms were reviewed and categorized.


          Twelve nodules from 12 patients were surgically confirmed as HTT. Ultrasonography (US)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) was performed on 11 nodules, of which six (54.5%) were papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) or suspicious for PTC and three (27.3%) were HTT or suspicious for HTT. Intraoperative FS suggested the possibility of HTT in seven nodules, of which four (57.1%) were confirmed as HTT. US-FNA suggested the diagnosis of HTT in 10 nodules, of which three (30.0%) were confirmed as HTT. Common US features of the 12 pathologically confirmed cases of HTT were hypoechogenicity or marked hypoechogenicity (83.4%), absence of calcifications (91.7%), parallel shape (100.0%), presence of vascularity (75.0%), and probable benignity (58.3%).


          HTT should be included in the differential diagnosis of solid tumors with hypoechogenicity or marked hypoechogenicity and otherwise benign US features that have been diagnosed as PTC through cytology.

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          Most cited references 16

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          New sonographic criteria for recommending fine-needle aspiration biopsy of nonpalpable solid nodules of the thyroid.

          The purpose of our study was to provide new sonographic criteria for fine-needle aspiration biopsy of nonpalpable solid thyroid nodules. Sonographic scans of 155 nonpalpable thyroid nodules in 132 patients were prospectively classified as having positive or negative findings. Sonographic findings that suggested malignancy included microcalcifications, an irregular or microlobulated margin, marked hypoechogenicity, and a shape that was more tall than it was wide. If even one of these sonographic features was present, the nodule was classified as positive (malignant). If a nodule had none of the features described, it was classified as negative (benign). The final diagnosis of a lesion as benign (n = 106) or malignant (n = 49) was confirmed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy and follow-up (>6 months) in 83 benign nodules, by fine-needle aspiration biopsy and surgery in 44 malignant and 15 benign lesions, and by surgery alone in five malignant and eight benign lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were calculated on the basis of our proposed classification method. Of 82 lesions classified as positive, 46 were malignant. Of 73 lesions classified as negative, three were malignant. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy based on our sonographic classification method were 93.8%, 66%, 56.1%, 95.9%, and 74.8%, respectively. Considering the high level of sensitivity of our proposed sonographic classification, fine-needle aspiration biopsy should be performed on thyroid nodules classified as positive, regardless of palpability.
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            How to combine ultrasound and cytological information in decision making about thyroid nodules.

            The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of sonographic-cytological correlation in determining which nodules should be reaspirated to reduce the false-negative rate of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). A retrospective cohort study was performed on a database of 568 patients with 672 focal thyroid nodules. An independent two-sample t-test was used to compare the risk of malignancy according to clinical factors. We evaluated the risk stratification of malignancy according to US groupings and cytological results. Additionally, we calculated the false-negative rate of FNAB and investigated the cytological results of repeat aspiration. The malignancy rate (92.2-98.5%) was high in thyroid nodules designated "malignant" or "suspicious for papillary carcinoma" on FNAB, regardless of US features. In contrast, when focal thyroid nodules had "benign" readings on FNAB, the malignancy rate was lower for the "probably benign" US features (2.9%) than for the suspicious nodules (56.6%). The false-negative rate of FNAB was 5.8%. Repeat aspiration revealed "suspicious for malignancy" or "malignancy" results in 15 (93.8%) of 16 thyroid cancers with "benign" results on initial aspirate. This study demonstrated repeat FNAB should be performed on focal thyroid nodules with suspicious US features even when initial FNAB results are benign.
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              Inadequate cytology in thyroid nodules: should we repeat aspiration or follow-up?

              To evaluate how to correctly manage thyroid nodules showing inadequate cytology after ultrasound (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNAB). A total of 393 thyroid nodules with inadequate cytology in 351 patients (M:F = 40:311, mean age: 49.3 years) with surgery or follow-up US-FNAB for at least 1 year were included in this study. Among them, 293 (74.6%) were benign and 100 (25.4%) were malignant on final reference results. Clinical characteristics and US features were reviewed and compared. Malignancy rates (39.5%) of nodules having suspicious US feature were significantly higher than those (10.9%) of nodules without any suspicious US feature (P < .001). Malignancy rates of solid nodules, mainly solid nodules, and mainly cystic nodules were 29.2, 16.7, and 9.5%, respectively, with significant differences (P = .016). Malignancy rates of nodules assessed as suspicious malignant to probably benign in composition are: 39.1-12.8% (P < .001) in solid nodules, 42.1-9.2% (P = .001) in mainly solid nodules, and 50.0-5.3% (P = .04) in mainly cystic nodules. In nodules with inadequate cytology, follow-up US can be considered over repeat aspiration if there are no suspicious US features present, especially in mainly cystic nodules.

                Author and article information

                Korean Society of Ultrasound in Medicine
                April 2016
                8 November 2015
                : 35
                : 2
                : 131-139
                [1 ]Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
                [2 ]Department of Pathology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
                [3 ]Department of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Jung Hyun Yoon, MD, PhD, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea Tel. +82-2-2228-7400 Fax. +82-2-393-3035 E-mail: lvjenny@ 123456yuhs.ac
                Copyright © 2016 Korean Society of Ultrasound in Medicine (KSUM)

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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