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      Cell Biology of Diabetic Kidney Disease

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          Abstract

          In large part cellular dysfunctions induced by chronic hyperglycemia are similar in type-1 and -2 diabetes. In both instances chronic hyperglycemia induces injury to a multitude of organs by affecting various target cells. The cells affected may include those derived from of epithelial or mesenchymal progenitors; and at times hyperglycemia may induce phenotypic changes with epithelial-mesenchymal transformation. In the majority of target cells the high-glucose ambience activates various intracellular pathways that are similar except for minor exceptions that are related to the selective expression of various molecules in a given cell type. Keeping in perspective a common paradigm applicable to most of the cells, a brief discussion of different hyperglycemia-induced cellular events pertaining to various pathways is described in this review. They include fluxes of glucose intermediaries in various cellular metabolic pathways, generation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their extra- and intracellular effects, the role of protein kinase C, transforming growth factor-β, guanosine triphosphate-binding proteins and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in various cellular signaling events. The latter, i.e., ROS, may be central to several intracellular pathways and modulate various events in a reciprocal manner. The information compiled under various subtitles of this synopsis is derived from an enormous amount of literature data summarized in several recent excellent reviews, and thus further reading of them is suggested to gather detailed comprehensive information on each of the subjects.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Mitochondrial diseases in man and mouse.

           D C Wallace (1999)
          Over the past 10 years, mitochondrial defects have been implicated in a wide variety of degenerative diseases, aging, and cancer. Studies on patients with these diseases have revealed much about the complexities of mitochondrial genetics, which involves an interplay between mutations in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. However, the pathophysiology of mitochondrial diseases has remained perplexing. The essential role of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in cellular energy production, the generation of reactive oxygen species, and the initiation of apoptosis has suggested a number of novel mechanisms for mitochondrial pathology. The importance and interrelationship of these functions are now being studied in mouse models of mitochondrial disease.
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            Molecular understanding of hyperglycemia's adverse effects for diabetic complications.

             Paul King,  M Sheetz (2002)
            Diabetic complications are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in persons with diabetes. Chronic hyperglycemia is a major initiator of diabetic microvascular complications (eg, retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy). Glucose processing uses a variety of diverse metabolic pathways; hence, chronic hyperglycemia can induce multiple cellular changes leading to complications. Several predominant well-researched theories have been proposed to explain how hyperglycemia can produce the neural and vascular derangements that are hallmarks of diabetes. These theories can be separated into those that emphasize the toxic effects of hyperglycemia and its pathophysiological derivatives (such as oxidants, hyperosmolarity, or glycation products) on tissues directly and those that ascribe pathophysiological importance to a sustained alteration in cell signaling pathways (such as changes in phospholipids or kinases) induced by the products of glucose metabolism. This article summarizes these theories and the potential therapeutic interventions that may prevent diabetic complications in the presence of hyperglycemia, control of which is often difficult with current therapeutic options.
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              Extracellular matrix metabolism in diabetic nephropathy.

              Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins in the mesangium and basement membrane of the glomerulus and in the renal tubulointerstitium. This review summarizes the main changes in protein composition of the glomerular mesangium and basement membrane and the evidence that, in the mesangium, these are initiated by changes in glucose metabolism and the formation of advanced glycation end products. Both processes generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). The review includes discussion of how ROS may activate intracellular signaling pathways leading to the activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors. This in turn leads to change in the expression of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins and the protease systems responsible for their turnover.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEE
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2005
                November 2005
                10 August 2005
                : 101
                : 3
                : e100-e110
                Affiliations
                Departments of aPathology and bMedicine, Northwestern University School of Medicine, Chicago, Ill., USA; cDepartment of Medicine, Okayama University School of Medicine, Okayama, Japan
                Article
                87339 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2005;101:e100–e110
                10.1159/000087339
                16088221
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, References: 56, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/87339
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