12 January 2018
Cerebral aneurysms and microaneurysms are abnormal vascular dilatations with high risk of rupture. An aneurysmal rupture could cause permanent disability and even death. Finding and treating aneurysms before their rupture is very difficult since symptoms can be easily attributed mistakenly to other common brain diseases. Mathematical models could highlight possible mechanisms of aneurismal development and suggest specialized biomarkers for aneurysms. Existing mathematical models of intracranial aneurysms focus on mechanical interactions between blood flow and arteries. However, these models cannot apply to microaneurysms since the anatomy and physiology at the length scale of cerebral microcirculation are different. In this paper we propose a mechanism for the formation of microaneurysms that involves the chemo-mechanical coupling of blood and endothelial and neuroglial cells. We model the blood as a non-local non-Newtonian incompressible fluid and solve analytically the Poiseuille flow of such a fluid through an axi-symmetric circular rigid and impermeable pipe in the presence of wall slip. The spatial derivatives of the proposed generalization of the rate of deformation tensor are expressed using Caputo fractional derivatives. The wall slip is represented by the classic Navier law and a generalization of this law involving fractional derivatives. Numerical simulations suggest that hypertension could contribute to microaneurysmal formation.