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      Defective Interleukin-10 Synthesis by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells among Hemodialysis Patients

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          Abstract

          Background: Interleukin-10 (IL-10), a potent regulatory monokine produced by activated mononuclear cells, provides an efficient autocrine mechanism for controlling proinflammatory cytokine synthesis. We hypothesized that defective synthesis of IL-10 could contribute to the inflammatory state in hemodialysis (HD) patients due to impaired feedback inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production. Methods: We compared peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) synthesis and transcription of IL-10 and TNF-α in 12 patients with end-stage renal disease on long-term maintenance HD and a control group of 10 healthy subjects. Results: The synthesis of IL-10 by unstimulated PBMC was detectable in 5 of 12 (42%) HD patients as compared to 7 of 10 (70%) controls (p = 0.02). IL-10 synthesis in response to endotoxin (ET) by PBMC from HD patients was significantly lower when compared to the robust response in the control group (p = 0.008). Among the HD patients, there was a positive correlation between ET-stimulated IL-10 synthesis and the duration of time on dialysis. Unstimulated and ET-stimulated synthesis of TNF-α by PBMC did not differ between the 2 groups. In the HD patients, there was an inverse correlation between TNF-α and IL-10 synthesis by ET-stimulated PBMC, suggesting a regulatory effect of IL-10 on PBMC TNF-α synthesis. There was also an inverse correlation between plasma albumin and ET-stimulated TNF-α synthesis by PBMC among HD patients. TNF-α mRNA expression did not differ in HD patients relative to healthy controls. In contrast, when IL-10 mRNA from ET-stimulated PBMC was quantified, there was marked difference between the 2 groups indicating a transcriptional defect in IL-10 synthesis in PBMC from HD patients. Conclusion: Our observations indicate a marked abnormality in IL-10 synthesis by PBMC from HD patients probably related to a transcriptional defect. Low PBMC IL-10 synthesis may contribute to a chronic inflammatory state in these patients by defective feedback inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction.

          A new method of total RNA isolation by a single extraction with an acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture is described. The method provides a pure preparation of undegraded RNA in high yield and can be completed within 4 h. It is particularly useful for processing large numbers of samples and for isolation of RNA from minute quantities of cells or tissue samples.
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            Interleukin 10(IL-10) inhibits cytokine synthesis by human monocytes: an autoregulatory role of IL-10 produced by monocytes

             B Bennett,  R Malefyt,  la De (1991)
            In the present study we demonstrate that human monocytes activated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were able to produce high levels of interleukin 10 (IL-10), previously designated cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), in a dose dependent fashion. IL-10 was detectable 7 h after activation of the monocytes and maximal levels of IL-10 production were observed after 24-48 h. These kinetics indicated that the production of IL-10 by human monocytes was relatively late as compared to the production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), which were all secreted at high levels 4-8 h after activation. The production of IL-10 by LPS activated monocytes was, similar to that of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and G-CSF, inhibited by IL-4. Furthermore we demonstrate here that IL-10, added to monocytes, activated by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), LPS, or combinations of LPS and IFN-gamma at the onset of the cultures, strongly inhibited the production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha, GM-CSF, and G-CSF at the transcriptional level. Viral-IL-10, which has similar biological activities on human cells, also inhibited the production of TNF alpha and GM-CSF by monocytes following LPS activation. Activation of monocytes by LPS in the presence of neutralizing anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibodies resulted in the production of higher amounts of cytokines relative to LPS treatment alone, indicating that endogenously produced IL-10 inhibited the production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha, GM-CSF, and G-CSF. In addition, IL-10 had autoregulatory effects since it strongly inhibited IL-10 mRNA synthesis in LPS activated monocytes. Furthermore, endogenously produced IL-10 was found to be responsible for the reduction in class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression following activation of monocytes with LPS. Taken together our results indicate that IL-10 has important regulatory effects on immunological and inflammatory responses because of its capacity to downregulate class II MHC expression and to inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines by monocytes.
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              Two types of mouse T helper cell. IV. Th2 clones secrete a factor that inhibits cytokine production by Th1 clones

              A cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF) is secreted by Th2 clones in response to Con A or antigen stimulation, but is absent in supernatants from Con A-induced Th1 clones. CSIF can inhibit the production of IL-2, IL-3, lymphotoxin (LT)/TNF, IFN-gamma, and granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF) by Th1 cells responding to antigen and APC, but Th2 cytokine synthesis is not significantly affected. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) also inhibits IFN-gamma production, although less effectively than CSIF, whereas IL-2 and IL-4 partially antagonize the activity of CSIF. CSIF inhibition of cytokine synthesis is not complete, since early cytokine synthesis (before 8 h) is not significantly affected, whereas later synthesis is strongly inhibited. In the presence of CSIF, IFN-gamma mRNA levels are reduced slightly at 8, and strongly at 12 h after stimulation. Inhibition of cytokine expression by CSIF is not due to a general reduction in Th1 cell viability, since actin mRNA levels were not reduced, and proliferation of antigen-stimulated cells in response to IL-2, was unaffected. Biochemical characterization, mAbs, and recombinant or purified cytokines showed that CSIF is distinct from IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IFN-gamma, GM-CSF, TGF-beta, TNF, LT, and P40. The potential role of CSIF in crossregulation of Th1 and Th2 responses is discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2002
                2002
                15 January 2003
                : 20
                : 6
                : 543-550
                Affiliations
                Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, New England Medical Center Hospitals, Boston, Mass., USA
                Article
                66958 Blood Purif 2002;20:543–550
                10.1159/000066958
                12566670
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 35, Pages: 8
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/66958
                Categories
                Original Paper

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