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      Relationship of Some Risk Factors with Typical and Atypical Manifestations of Coronary Heart Disease

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          Abstract

          Background: This analysis explores whether ‘typical’ clinical manifestations of coronary heart disease (CHD) such as myocardial infarction and sudden death, relate to major cardiovascular risk factors in the same way as the ‘atypical’ manifestations, e.g. heart failure and chronic arrhythmias. Patients and Methods: Sixteen cohorts of men aged 40–59 in seven countries were examined, risk factors measured (age, systolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol and smoking habits) and 25-year mortality data collected in a systematic way. Cohorts were located in the US (n = 1), Finland (n = 2), the Netherlands (n = 1), Italy (n = 3), former Yugoslavia (n = 5), Greece (n = 2) and Japan (n = 2), with a total of 12,763 individuals. Ecological analysis based on regression equations and correlation among cohorts, and individual analyses based on proportional hazard models in pools of cohorts were conducted with typical and atypical CHD deaths as dependent variables. Results: The ecological analysis suggests a significant relationship of populational mean levels of serum cholesterol and of systolic blood pressure to age-adjusted death rates from typical CHD manifestations. The relationships for atypical CHD deaths were not statistically significant. In the ecological approach with multivariate analysis, none of the risk factors showed relevant associations with event rates, except serum cholesterol and typical CHD deaths. The ecological relationship of serum cholesterol to atypical CHD death rates was negative but not significant. On average, mean age at death was statistically higher among atypical CHD than typical CHD patients (70.2 vs. 65.8 years). In the individual multivariate analysis conducted on pools of countries, the relationship of risk factors with typical CHD deaths was direct and significant for age, systolic blood pressure, and smoking habits in Northern Europe and America and Southern Europe, but only for systolic blood pressure and smoking habits in Japan, whereas for atypical CHD, the predictive factors were age, systolic blood pressure and cigarette smoking in Northern Europe and America and Southern Europe, but only age in Japan. Conclusions: The usual relationship of blood pressure and smoking habits and the differential relationship of serum cholesterol with atypical CHD (negative or absent) versus typical CHD (direct and significant) could be explained by ‘two different diseases’ or by a mix of poorly classified conditions among the atypical cases.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          CRD
          Cardiology
          10.1159/issn.0008-6312
          Cardiology
          S. Karger AG
          0008-6312
          1421-9751
          1998
          December 1997
          11 December 1997
          : 89
          : 1
          : 59-67
          Affiliations
          a Division of Epidemiology, University of Minnesota, School of Public Health, Minneapolis, Minn., USA; b Laboratorio di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma, Italia; c Public Health Research Division, National Institute of Public Health and Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; d Department of Community Medicine and General Practice, University of Kuopio, Finland; e Pioppi, Salerno, f Istituto di Scienza dell’Alimentazione, Università di Perugia, Italy; g Nutrition Unit, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; h University of Zagreb, Croatia; i Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia; j Athens Medical Center, Athens, k Athens Home for the Aged, Center of Studies, Athens, Greece
          Article
          6744 Cardiology 1998;89:59–67
          10.1159/000006744
          9452159
          © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Tables: 8, References: 18, Pages: 9
          Categories
          Epidemiology and Prevention

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