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      Modulation of Insulin Signalling in Non-lnsulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Significance of Altered Receptor Isoform Patterns and Mechanisms of Glucose-Induced Receptor Modulation

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          Abstract

          Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle plays a key role in the development of the metabolic-endocrine syndrome and its further progression to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Available data suggest that insulin resistance is caused by impaired signalling from the insulin receptor to the glucose transport system and to glycogen synthase. The impaired response of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase, which is found in NIDDM, appears to contribute to the pathogenesis of the signalling defect. The reduced kinase activation is not caused by mutation of the receptor. Two potential mechanisms were investigated that might be relevant to the abnormal function of the insulin receptor in NIDDM. That is, changes of the receptor isoforms and the effect of hyperglycaemia. The insulin receptor is expressed in two different isoforms (HIR-A and HIR-B). HIR-B expression in skeletal muscle is increased in NIDDM. Characterization of the functional properties of HIR-B, however, revealed that increased HIR-B expression did not cause impaired tyrosine kinase activity, but more probably represented a compensatory event. In contrast, hyperglycaemia is able to inhibit insulin receptor function. In a rat-1 fibroblast cell line overexpressing human insulin receptor, inhibition of the tyrosine kinase activity of the receptor can be induced by high glucose levels. This effect appears to be mediated through activation of certain protein kinase C isoforms, which are able to form stable complexes with the insulin receptor and modulate its tyrosine kinase activity through serine phosphorylation of the receptor β-subunit. This mechanism might also be relevant in human skeletal muscle and thereby contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          HRE
          10.1159/issn.0018-5051
          Hormone Research in Paediatrics
          S. Karger AG
          978-3-8055-6003-0
          978-3-318-00608-7
          0018-5051
          2571-6603
          1994
          1994
          05 December 2008
          : 41
          : Suppl 2
          : 87-92
          Affiliations
          Institυt für Diabetesforschung, Munich, FRG
          Article
          183966 Horm Res 1994;41:87–92
          10.1159/000183966
          © 1994 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 6
          Categories
          Symposium Session II: Hormone Receptor Physiology and Novel Therapeutic Approaches

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