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      Is Open Access

      Pain Perception of Nurses and Pain Expression of Patients in Critical Care Units

      1 , 2

      Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing

      Korean Society of Nursing Science (KAMJE)

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          Most cited references 15

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          Assessing pain in critically ill sedated patients by using a behavioral pain scale.

          To establish the validity and reliability of a new behavioral pain scale (BPS) for critically ill sedated adult patients. Prospective evaluation. Ten-bed trauma and surgical intensive care unit in a university teaching hospital. Thirty mechanically ventilated patients who were receiving analgesia and sedation. Assessments with the BPS were completed consecutively at standardized times (morning, afternoon, night) by pairs of evaluators (nurse and nurse's aide). They collected physiologic parameters and BPS results before and during care procedures: non-nociceptive (group 1, compression stockings application and central venous catheter dressing change), nociceptive (group 2, endotracheal suctioning and mobilization), and retested nociceptive (group 3). The BPS score was the sum of three items that had a range score of 1-4: facial expression, movements of upper limbs, and compliance with mechanical ventilation. Two hundred and sixty nine assessments were completed, including 104, 134, and 31 measurements in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. There was no difference in Ramsay scale scores between the three groups (Ramsay 4-6). Nociceptive stimulations (group 2) resulted in significantly higher BPS values than non-nociceptive ones (group 1, 4.9 vs. 3.5, p <.01), whereas the two groups had comparable BPS values before stimulation (3.1 vs. 3.0). A trend was found in group 2 between the dosage of sedation/analgesia and BPS: the higher the dosage, the lower BPS values and BPS changes to nociceptive stimulation. Group 3 had BPS values similar to group 2 at rest (3.2 vs. 3.2) and during the procedure (4.4 vs. 4.5), with good interrater correlations (r(2) =.71 and.50, respectively). These results indicate that the expression of pain can be scored validly and reliably by using the BPS in sedated, mechanically ventilated patients. Further studies are warranted regarding the utility of the BPS in making clinical decisions about the use of analgesic drugs in the intensive care unit.
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            Current practices in sedation and analgesia for mechanically ventilated critically ill patients: a prospective multicenter patient-based study.

            The authors conducted a patient-based survey of practices to fully describe the assessment and the management of pain and sedation of a large cohort of mechanically ventilated patients during their first week of intensive care unit (ICU) stay. A total of 1,381 adult patients were included in a prospective, observational study in 44 ICUs in France. Pain and sedation assessment, analgesic and sedative use, and analgesic management during procedural pain were collected on days 2, 4, and 6 of the ICU stay. The observed rates of assessment on day 2 for sedation (43%) and analgesia (42%) were significantly smaller than that of use of sedatives (72%) and opioids (90%), also noted on days 4 and 6. The use of protocols/guidelines for sedation/analgesia in the ICU reduced the proportion of patients who were treated, although not evaluated. A large proportion of assessed patients were in a deep state of sedation (40-50%). Minor changes in the dosages of the main prescribed agents for sedation (midazolam, propofol) and analgesia (sufentanil, fentanyl, morphine, remifentanil) were found across 6 days of the patient's ICU stay. Procedural pain was specifically managed for less than 25% of patients; during those procedures, the proportion of patients with pain significantly increased from the baseline pain evaluation. Excessively deep states of sedation and a lack of analgesia during painful procedures must be prevented. To facilitate systematic pain and sedation assessment and to adjust daily drug dosages accordingly, it seems crucial to promote educational programs and elaboration of protocols/guidelines in the ICU.
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              Impact of systematic evaluation of pain and agitation in an intensive care unit.

              To measure the impact of implementation of the systematic evaluation of pain and agitation by nurses using the Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS), the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) for pain, and the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) associated with medical staff education in analgesia and sedation management in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Two-phase, prospective, controlled study. Twelve-bed medical-surgical ICU in a university hospital. Consecutive patients staying >24 hrs in ICU. BPS, NRS, and RASS were measured twice daily, at rest, by independent observers during 21 wks (control group) and after 4 wks of training, by nurses during 29 wks (intervention group). In the intervention group, the treating physician was alerted in case of pain defined by BPS>5 or NRS>3 or in case of agitation defined by RASS>1. A total of 230 patients were included (control group, n=100; intervention group, n=130). Baseline characteristics were not significantly different. The incidence of pain and agitation decreased significantly in the intervention group: 63% vs. 42% (p=.002) and 29% vs. 12% (p=.002), respectively. Rate of severe pain and agitation events defined by NRS>6 and RASS>2, respectively, also decreased significantly. There were significantly more therapeutic changes in the intervention group in the way of an escalation but also in the way of a de-escalation for analgesic and psychoactive drugs. Compared with the control group, there was a marked decrease in the duration of mechanical ventilation (120 [interquartile range 48-312] vs. 65 (24-192) hrs, p=.01) and nosocomial infections rate (17% vs. 8%, p<.05) in the intervention group. There was no significant difference in median length of stay (9 [4, 15] vs. 7 [4, 13] days) and mortality in ICU (12 vs. 15%). Systematic evaluation of pain and agitation, and analgesics and sedatives need was associated with a decrease in incidence of pain and agitation, duration of mechanical ventilation and nosocomial infections.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
                J Korean Acad Nurs
                Korean Society of Nursing Science (KAMJE)
                2005-3673
                2093-758X
                2014
                2014
                : 44
                : 4
                : 437
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Nursing, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, Korea.
                [2 ]College of Nursing, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Korea.
                Article
                10.4040/jkan.2014.44.4.437
                © 2014

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