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      Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in a Patient with Congenital Factor XI Deficiency and Acquired Inhibitor

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          Abstract

          Background: Factor XI deficiency has been associated with bleeding diathesis mostly secondary to trauma and post-operatively depending on the severity of deficiency. Cases with factor XI deficiency having undergone cardiac surgery and coronary intervention after appropriate replacement therapy have been reported in the past. The presence of inhibitor in factor XI deficiency poses a hematological challenge and literature regarding coronary intervention in such patients is limited. Immunosuppressive therapy, plasma exchange and factor VII product transfusions have been used prior to cardiac interventions in few such reported cases. Method: We report our approach in such a case of Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty in a 72-year-old male of Jewish origin who has congenital factor XI deficiency complicated with acquired inhibitor. Results: In some cases, the acuity of the coronary syndrome may mandate immediate coronary intervention. However, patient’s history of factor XI deficiency and acquired inhibitor pose a major dilemma of further course of action. We performed percutaneous balloon angioplasty in this case with no anti-coagulant and with favorable outcome. Conclusion: Under these circumstances of significant coagulation disorder and based on the case report, we recommend that balloon angioplasty be undertaken with no additional anti-coagulation other than Aspirin.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Factor XI deficiency in Ashkenazi Jews in Israel.

           E Davie,  R Asakai,  D Chung (1991)
          Severe factor XI deficiency, which is relatively common among Ashkenazi Jews, is associated with injury-related bleeding of considerable severity. Three point mutations--a splice-junction abnormality (Type I), Glu117----Stop (Type II), and Phe283----Leu (Type III)--have been described in six patients with factor XI deficiency. Clinical correlations with these mutations have not been carried out. We determined the relative frequency of the mutations and their association with plasma levels of factor XI clotting activity and bleeding, analyzing the mutations with the polymerase chain reaction and restriction-enzyme digestion. The Type II and Type III mutations had similar frequencies among 43 Ashkenazi Jewish probands with severe factor XI deficiency; these two mutations accounted for 49 percent and 47 percent, respectively, of a total of 86 analyzed alleles. Among 40 of the probands and 12 of their relatives with severe factor XI deficiency, patients homozygous for Type III mutation had a significantly higher level of factor XI clotting activity (mean [+/- SD] percentage of normal values, 9.7 +/- 3.8 percent; n = 13) than those homozygous for Type II mutation (1.2 +/- 0.5 percent, n = 16) or compound heterozygotes with Type II/III mutation (3.3 +/- 1.6 percent, n = 23), as well as significantly fewer episodes of injury-related bleeding. Each of these three groups had a similarly increased proportion of episodes of bleeding complications after surgery at sites with enhanced local fibrinolysis, such as the urinary tract, or during tooth extraction. Type II and Type III mutations are the predominant causes of factor XI deficiency among Ashkenazi Jews. Genotypic analysis, assay for factor XI, and consideration of the type and location of surgery can be helpful in planning operations in patients with this disorder.
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            Inheritance and bleeding in factor XI deficiency.

            A study of 20 Jewish and four non-Jewish kindreds transmitting factor XI deficiency (164 individuals) confirmed inheritance to be autosomal with severe deficiency in homozygotes (mean factor XI level 3.8 u/dl, SD 2.91) and partial deficiency in heterozygotes (mean factor XI level 57 u/dl, SD 10.42; normal mean factor XI level 96 u/dl, SD 11.6). The probability of an individual being heterozygous can be predicted from the factor XI level using a graph derived from this data. The accuracy is increased by including the prior probability derived from the pedigree. A high frequency of heterozygote to heterozygote mating was observed in the Jewish families consistent with an estimated gene frequency of 13.4% in this racial group. The relationship between factor XI level and bleeding tendency is poor; a third of heterozygotes had bled excessively after surgery, including six with factor XI levels above 50 u/dl, showing this condition to have clear signs of expression in heterozygotes. The lower limit of the normal range (2 SDs from the mean) was found to be 72 u/dl.
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              Factor VIIa in the treatment of haemophilia.

               U Hedner (1990)
              Recombinant FVIIa is being developed for treatment of haemophiliacs with antibodies against FVIII/FIX. rFVIIa was shown to be haemostatically active in haemophilia A and B dogs as well as in 20 haemophilia patients (one haemophilia B and 19 haemophilia A patients). Thirteen patients were treated for life-threatening bleedings and nine at surgery (dose: 60-90 micrograms/kg q 3-4 h). One patient underwent synovectomy in a knee joint under the cover of rFVIIa as the sole coagulation factor without any problems. One patient with FXI deficiency was successfully treated at an orchidectomy. The haemophilia B patient was treated in association with a compartment syndrome (surgical fasciotomy) with a complete haemostasis. He later uneventfully underwent skin grafting. Two CNS bleeds, a severe mouth bleed were treated as well as an extensive nasopharyngeal bleed in a patient with an acquired inhibitor against FVIII. Shortening of the prothrombin time as well as of the APTT was seen. No side-effects were observed. It is speculated whether FVIIa in complex with not only tissue factor but also phospholipids exposed at the site of injured cells directly activates FXa and thereby the final common pathway of the coagulation cascade.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2007
                December 2006
                22 June 2006
                : 107
                : 1
                : 69-72
                Affiliations
                Division of Cardiology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, N.Y., USA
                Article
                94077 Cardiology 2007;107:69–72
                10.1159/000094077
                16791004
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, References: 18, Pages: 4
                Categories
                Case Report

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