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      Metaphor and embodied cognition Translated title: Metáfora e cognição corpórea

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          The present paper briefly describes recent advances in cognitive science on the embodied nature of human cognition with the aim to better situating contemporary work on embodied metaphor in language and thought. We do this by talking about key experimental findings in five areas main areas of research in cognitive science: perception, concepts, mental imagery, memory, and language processing (Gibbs 2006a) We also describe some psycholinguistic studies on embodied metaphor understanding, and offer some details on one series of experiments in regard to people's embodied understanding of the DIFFICULTIES ARE WEIGHTS primary metaphor. Our conclusion draws connections between the research on embodied cognition and contemporary linguistic and psychological work on embodied metaphor.

          Translated abstract

          O presente trabalho descreve sucintamente avanços na ciência cognitiva a respeito da natureza corpórea da cognição humana com o objetivo de melhor situar o trabalho contemporâneo sobre metáforas corpóreas na linguagem e no pensamento. Fazemos isso por discutir achados de experimentos centrais em cinco áreas principais de pesquisa em ciência cognitiva: percepção, conceitos, imagem mental, memória e processamento da linguagem (Gibbs 2006a). Descrevemos também alguns estudos psicolinguísticos sobre a compreensão de metáforas corpóreas e detalhamos uma série de experimentos desenhados para investigar a compreensão corporificada de pessoas a respeito da metáfora primária DIFICULDADES SÃO PESOS. Nossa conclusão busca pontos de interesse comum entre a pesquisa sobre cognição corpórea e trabalhos na área da lingüística e psicologia sobre metáfora corpórea.

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          Most cited references 34

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          The Ecological Approach To Visual Perception

           James Gibson (2013)
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            Words in the brain's language.

            If the cortex is an associative memory, strongly connected cell assemblies will form when neurons in different cortical areas are frequently active at the same time. The cortical distributions of these assemblies must be a consequence of where in the cortex correlated neuronal activity occurred during learning. An assembly can be considered a functional unit exhibiting activity states such as full activation ("ignition") after appropriate sensory stimulation (possibly related to perception) and continuous reverberation of excitation within the assembly (a putative memory process). This has implications for cortical topographies and activity dynamics of cell assemblies forming during language acquisition, in particular for those representing words. Cortical topographies of assemblies should be related to aspects of the meaning of the words they represent, and physiological signs of cell assembly ignition should be followed by possible indicators of reverberation. The following postulates are discussed in detail: (1) assemblies representing phonological word forms are strongly lateralized and distributed over perisylvian cortices; (2) assemblies representing highly abstract words such as grammatical function words are also strongly lateralized and restricted to these perisylvian regions; (3) assemblies representing concrete content words include additional neurons in both hemispheres; (4) assemblies representing words referring to visual stimuli include neurons in visual cortices; and (5) assemblies representing words referring to actions include neurons in motor cortices. Two main sources of evidence are used to evaluate these proposals: (a) imaging studies focusing on localizing word processing in the brain, based on stimulus-triggered event-related potentials (ERPs), positron emission tomography (PET), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and (b) studies of the temporal dynamics of fast activity changes in the brain, as revealed by high-frequency responses recorded in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalogram (MEG). These data provide evidence for processing differences between words and matched meaningless pseudowords, and between word classes, such as concrete content and abstract function words, and words evoking visual or motor associations. There is evidence for early word class-specific spreading of neuronal activity and for equally specific high-frequency responses occurring later. These results support a neurobiological model of language in the Hebbian tradition. Competing large-scale neuronal theories of language are discussed in light of the data summarized. Neurobiological perspectives on the problem of serial order of words in syntactic strings are considered in closing.
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              Solving the "real" mysteries of visual perception: the world as an outside memory.

              Visual science is currently a highly active domain, with much progress being made in fields such as colour vision, stereo vision, perception of brightness and contrast, visual illusions, etc. But the "real" mystery of visual perception remains comparatively unfathomed, or at least relegated to philosophical status: Why it is that we can see so well with what is apparently such a badly constructed visual apparatus? In this paper I will discuss several defects of vision and the classical theories of how they are overcome. I will criticize these theories and suggest an alternative approach, in which the outside world is considered as a kind of external memory store which can be accessed instantaneously by casting one's eyes (or one's attention) to some location. The feeling of the presence and extreme richness of the visual world is, under this view, a kind of illusion, created by the immediate availability of the information in this external store.

                Author and article information

                [1 ] University of California United States
                [2 ] Universidade Federal do Ceará Brazil
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                DELTA: Documentação de Estudos em Lingüística Teórica e Aplicada
                Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo - PUC-SP (São Paulo )
                : 26
                : spe
                : 679-700
                S0102-44502010000300014 10.1590/S0102-44502010000300014


                Product Information: SciELO Brazil


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