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      Targeting Survivin in Cancer: Novel Drug Development Approaches

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      Biodrugs

      Springer International Publishing

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          Abstract

          Survivin is a well-established target in experimental cancer therapy. The molecule is over-expressed in most human tumors, but hardly detectable in normal tissues. Multiple functions in different subcellular compartments have been assigned. It participates in the control of cell division, apoptosis, the cellular stress response, and also in the regulation of cell migration and metastasis. Survivin expression has been recognized as a biomarker: high expression indicates an unfavorable prognosis and resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and radiation treatment. Survivin is an unconventional drug target and several indirect approaches have been exploited to affect its function and the phenotype of survivin-expressing cells. Interference with the expression of the survivin gene, the utilization of its messenger RNA, the intracellular localization, the interaction with binding partners, the stability of the survivin protein, and the induction of survivin-specific immune responses have been taken into consideration. A direct strategy to inhibit survivin has been based on the identification of a specifically interacting peptide. This peptide can recognize survivin intracellularly and cause the degradation of the ligand–survivin complex. Technology is being developed that might allow the derivation of small molecular-weight, drug-like compounds that are functionally equivalent to the peptide ligand.

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          Most cited references 82

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          Novel anticancer targets: revisiting ERBB2 and discovering ERBB3.

          Aberrant receptor expression or functioning of the epidermal growth factor receptor (Erbb) family plays a crucial part in the development and evolution of cancer. Inhibiting the signalling activity of individual receptors in this family has advanced the treatment of a range of human cancers. In this Review we re-evaluate the role of two important family members, ERBB2 (also known as HER2) and ERBB3 (also known as HER3), and explore the mechanisms of action and preclinical and clinical data for new therapies that target signalling through these pivotal receptors. These new therapies include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, antibody-chemotherapy conjugates, heat-shock protein inhibitors and antibodies that interfere with the formation of ERBB2-ERBB3 dimers.
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            A novel anti-apoptosis gene, survivin, expressed in cancer and lymphoma.

            Inhibitors of programmed cell death (apoptosis) aberrantly prolonging cell viability may contribute to cancer by facilitating the insurgence of mutations and by promoting resistance to therapy. Despite the identification of several new apoptosis inhibitors related to bcl-2 or to the baculovirus IAP gene, it is not clear whether apoptosis inhibition plays a general role in neoplasia. Here, we describe a new human gene encoding a structurally unique IAP apoptosis inhibitor, designated survivin. Survivin contains a single baculovirus IAP repeat and lacks a carboxyl-terminal RING finger. Present during fetal development, survivin is undetectable in terminally differentiated adult tissues. However, survivin becomes prominently expressed in transformed cell lines and in all the most common human cancers of lung, colon, pancreas, prostate and breast, in vivo. Survivin is also found in approximately 50% of high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (centroblastic, immunoblastic), but not in low-grade lymphomas (lymphocytic). Recombinant expression of survivin counteracts apoptosis of B lymphocyte precursors deprived of interleukin 3 (IL-3). These findings suggest that apoptosis inhibition may be a general feature of neoplasia and identify survivin as a potential new target for apoptosis-based therapy in cancer and lymphoma.
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              Bio-inspired, bioengineered and biomimetic drug delivery carriers.

              Synthetic carriers such as polymer and lipid particles often struggle to meet clinical expectations. Natural particulates - that range from pathogens to mammalian cells - are therefore worth examining in more depth, as they are highly optimized for their specific functions in vivo and possess features that are often desired in drug delivery carriers. With a better understanding of these biological systems, in conjunction with the availability of advanced biotechnology tools that are useful for re-engineering the various natural systems, researchers have started to exploit natural particulates for multiple applications in the delivery of proteins, small interfering RNA and other therapeutic agents. Here, we review the natural drug delivery carriers that have provided the basis and inspiration for new drug delivery systems.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                groner@em.uni-frankfurt.de
                Journal
                BioDrugs
                BioDrugs
                Biodrugs
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                1173-8804
                1179-190X
                18 August 2013
                18 August 2013
                2014
                : 28
                : 27-39
                Affiliations
                Georg Speyer Haus, Institute for Biomedical Research, Paul Ehrlich Str. 42, 60322 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
                Article
                58
                10.1007/s40259-013-0058-x
                3929033
                23955284
                © The Author(s) 2013

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

                Categories
                Review Article
                Custom metadata
                © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

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