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      Nephrectomy in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Patient with Exceptionally Large, Still Functioning Kidneys

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          Abstract

          Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary kidney disease. It is characterized by progressive cyst formation in both kidneys, often leading to end-stage kidney disease. Indications for surgical removal of an ADPKD kidney include intractable pain, hematuria, infection, or exceptional enlargement and small abdominal cavity hampering implantation of a donor kidney. We report the case of an extraordinarily large ADPKD kidney weighing 8.7 kg (19.3 lb) with a maximal length of 48 cm (19 inch), and with cysts filled with both clear and bloody fluid.

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          Clinical practice. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

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            Early renal abnormalities in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

            Potential therapeutic interventions are being developed for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). A pivotal question will be when to initiate such treatment, and monitoring disease progression will thus become more important. Therefore, the prevalence of renal abnormalities in ADPKD at different ages was evaluated. Included were 103 prevalent ADPKD patients (Ravine criteria). Measured were mean arterial pressure (MAP), total renal volume (TRV), GFR, effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), renal vascular resistance (RVR), and filtration fraction (FF). Twenty-four-hour urine was collected. ADPKD patients were compared with age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Patients and controls were subdivided into quartiles of age (median ages 28, 37, 42, and 52 years). Patients in the first quartile of age had almost the same GFR when compared with controls, but already a markedly decreased ERPF and an increased FF (GFR 117 +/- 32 versus 129 +/- 17 ml/min, ERPF 374 +/- 119 versus 527 +/- 83 ml/min, FF 32% +/- 4% versus 25% +/- 2%, and RVR 12 (10 to 16) versus 8 (7 to 8) dynes/cm(2), respectively). Young adult ADPKD patients also had higher 24-hour urinary volumes, lower 24-hour urinary osmolarity, and higher urinary albumin excretion (UAE) than healthy controls, although TRV in these young adult patients was modestly enlarged (median 1.0 L). Already at young adult age, ADPKD patients have marked renal abnormalities, including a decreased ERPF and increased FF and UAE, despite modestly enlarged TRV and near-normal GFR. ERPF, FF, and UAE may thus be better markers for disease severity than GFR.
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              Images in clinical medicine. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRU
                CND
                10.1159/issn.2296-9705
                Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
                S. Karger AG
                2296-9705
                2014
                May – August 2014
                04 June 2014
                : 4
                : 2
                : 109-112
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Nephrology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, and Departments of bSurgery and cPathology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
                Author notes
                *Edwin M. Spithoven, Department of Nephrology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, PO Box 30.001, NL-9700 RB Groningen (The Netherlands), E-Mail e.m.spithoven@umcg.nl
                Article
                363378 PMC4086038 Case Rep Nephrol Urol 2014;4:109-112
                10.1159/000363378
                PMC4086038
                25028584
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Pages: 4
                Categories
                Published: June 2014

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