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      Morphological characterization of antennae and antennal sensilla of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) nymphs

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          Abstract

          Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is the most economically important citrus pest which is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter spp. causing citrus greening (huanglongbing, HLB) disease. To better understand the developmental and structural changes of antennae and antennal sensilla in D. citri nymphs, we investigated the antennal morphology, structure and sensilla distribution of the five nymphal stages of D. citri using scanning electron microscopy. The antennae of the five different nymphal stages of D. citri were filiform in shape, which consisted of two segments in the first-, second- and third-instar nymphs; three segments in the fourth- and fifth-instar nymphs. The length of their antennae was significantly increased with the increase of the nymphal instar, as well as the total number of antennal sensilla. Ten morphological sensilla types were recorded altogether. They were the long terminal hair (TH1), short terminal hair (TH2), sensilla trichoidea (ST), cavity sensillum 1 (CvS1), cavity sensillum 2 (CvS2), sensilla basiconica 1–3 (SB1-3), sensilla campaniform (SCA) and partitioned sensory organ (PSO). Also, the distribution of antennal sensilla in each nymphal stage of D. citri was asymmetrical. The SBs only occurred on the antennae of the third-, fourth- and fifth-instar nymphs. Only one CvS2 was found in the third- and fifth-instar nymphs, and one SCA in the fourth- and fifth-instar nymphs, respectively. The possible roles of the nymphal antennal sensilla in D. citri were discussed. The results could contribute to a better understanding of the development of the sensory system, and facilitate future studies on the antennal functions in D. citri nymphs.

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          Most cited references 49

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          ASIAN CITRUS PSYLLIDS (STERNORRHYNCHA: PSYLLIDAE) AND GREENING DISEASE OF CITRUS: A LITERATURE REVIEW AND ASSESSMENT OF RISK IN FLORIDA

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            Huanglongbing: A destructive, newly-emerging, century-old disease of citrus

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              Responses of the Asian citrus psyllid to volatiles emitted by the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants.

               M Sétamou,  D J Patt (2010)
              Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) carries Candidatus liberibacter spp., the putative causal agents of Huanglongbing. D. citri reproduces and develops only on the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants. Here we examined whether D. citri is attracted to host plant odors and a mixture of synthetic terpenes. Tests conducted in a vertically oriented Y-tube olfactometer showed that both males and females preferentially entered the Y-tube arm containing the odor from the young shoots of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack and Citrus limon L. Burm. f. cultivar Eureka. Only males exhibited a preference for the odor of C. sinensis L., whereas the odor of C. x paradisi MacFadyen cultivar Rio Red was not attractive to both sexes. The volatiles emitted by young shoots of grapefruit cultivar Rio Red, Meyer lemon (Citrus x limon L. Burm.f.), and M. paniculata were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. The samples were comprised of monoterpenes, monoterpene esters, and sesquiterpenes. The number of compounds present varied from 2 to 17, whereas the total amount of sample collected over 6 h ranged from 5.6 to 119.8 ng. The quantitatively dominant constituents were (E)-beta-ocimene, linalool, linalyl acetate, and beta-caryophyllene. The attractiveness of a mixture of synthetic terpenes, modeled on the volatiles collected from M. paniculata, was evaluated in screened cages in a no-choice test. At three observation intervals, significantly more individuals were trapped on white targets scented with the mixture than on unscented targets. These results indicate the feasibility of developing D. citri attractants patterned on actual host plant volatiles.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curation
                Role: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: MethodologyRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                3 June 2020
                2020
                : 15
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Horticulture, Foshan University, Foshan, China
                [2 ] College of Agronomy, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, China
                University of California-Davis, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-19-23769
                10.1371/journal.pone.0234030
                7269239
                32492065
                © 2020 Zheng et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 3, Pages: 13
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Award ID: 31660517
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province, China
                Award ID: 20161BAB214172
                Award Recipient :
                This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31660517) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province, China (20161BAB214172).
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Developmental Biology
                Life Cycles
                Nymphs
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Animal Anatomy
                Animal Antennae
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Anatomy
                Animal Anatomy
                Animal Antennae
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Zoology
                Animal Anatomy
                Animal Antennae
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Sense Organs
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Anatomy
                Sense Organs
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Insects
                Hemiptera
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Plants
                Fruits
                Citrus
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Insects
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Microscopy
                Electron Microscopy
                Scanning Electron Microscopy
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Agriculture
                Crop Science
                Crops
                Fruit Crops
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

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