Background: Radiographic contrast media (CM) induce renal vasoconstriction and may initiate induced nephropathy. Endothelin (ET), a vasoconstrictor, and nitric oxide (NO), a vasodilator, which are synthesized in the kidney by the vascular endothelium as well as by tubular epithelial and glomerular mesangial cells, are key modulators of renal circulation after CM administration. Intravascular CM, in addition, induces pronounced diuresis and natriuresis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare changes in endogenous vasoactive mediators and contrast-induced natriuresis after CM administration. Methods: Diagnostic angiographic procedures were performed in 14 patients (9 males and 5 females) using the non-ionic CM Iopamidol. Before and immediately after angiography, venous blood and urine samples were obtained. The urinary excretion of ET-1 and nitrates/nitrites (NOx), and the fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) were measured and analyzed. Results: The urinary excretion of both ET-1 and NOx increased significantly (p < 0.05) after angiography, and urinary ET-1 and NOx excretion was correlated with an increase in FENa (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Exposure to CM in humans is associated with an increase in urinary ET and NOx. The excretion of sodium following CM administration is associated with an increase in urinary ET and NOx. ET and NO might be important in the renal change in humans after CM administration.