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      Importance of Periodontal Disease in the Kidney Patient

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          End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on hemodialysis experience a greatly increased rate of atherosclerotic complications. In both hemodialysis and general populations, it has become evident that inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic complications. C-reactive protein (CRP), the major acute phase protein in man, has been found to predict all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in ESRD patients on hemodialysis maintenance therapy. Hepatic CRP synthesis is upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines released locally at sites of infection or inflammation, although many patients experience elevated CRP values in the absence of overt infection or inflammation. Destructive periodontal diseases in the general population have been associated with both an increased prevalence of atherosclerotic complications and an elevation in serum CRP values. In view of the prevalence of destructive periodontal diseases in the general population, and since periodontal evaluations are normally not performed as part of a medical assessment, destructive periodontal diseases may be an over looked source of inflammation in ESRD patients on hemodialysis therapy. The intent of this report is to review the possible role destructive periodontal diseases and associated periodontal infections may play in the management of the ESRD patient on hemodialysis maintenance therapy.

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          Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 as an independent predictor of coronary heart disease. West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study Group.

          Chronic inflammation is believed to increase the risk of coronary events by making atherosclerotic plaques in coronary vessels prone to rupture. We examined blood constituents potentially affected by inflammation as predictors of risk in men with hypercholesterolemia who were enrolled in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study, a trial that evaluated the value of pravastatin in the prevention of coronary events. A total of 580 men who had had a coronary event (nonfatal myocardial infarction, death from coronary heart disease, or a revascularization procedure) were each matched for age and smoking status with 2 control subjects (total, 1160) from the same cohort who had not had a coronary event. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen levels, and the white-cell count were measured at base line, along with other traditional risk factors. The association of these variables with the risk of coronary events was tested in regression models and by dividing the range of values according to quintiles. Levels of C-reactive protein, the white-cell count, and fibrinogen levels were strong predictors of the risk of coronary events; the risk in the highest quintile of the study cohort for each variable was approximately twice that in the lowest quintile. However, the association of these variables with risk was markedly attenuated when age, systolic blood pressure, and lipoprotein levels were included in multivariate models. Levels of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase), the expression of which is regulated by mediators of inflammation, had a strong, positive association with risk that was not confounded by other factors. It was associated with almost a doubling of the risk in the highest quintile as compared with the lowest quintile. Inflammatory markers are predictors of the risk of coronary events, but their predictive ability is attenuated by associations with other coronary risk factors. Elevated levels of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 appear to be a strong risk factor for coronary heart disease, a finding that has implications for atherogenesis and the assessment of risk.
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            Cytokines and the hepatic acute phase response.

             H Moshage (1997)
            The acute phase response is an orchestrated response to tissue injury, infection or inflammation. A prominent feature of this response is the induction of acute phase proteins, which are involved in the restoration of homeostasis. Cytokines are important mediators of the acute phase response. Uncontrolled and prolonged action of cytokines is potentially harmful, therefore mechanisms exist which limit the activity of cytokines; these include soluble cytokine receptors and receptor antagonists. The cytokine signal is transmitted into the cell via membrane-bound receptors. Different intracellular signalling pathways are activated by different cytokine-receptor interactions. Eventually, cytokine-inducible transcription factors interact with their response elements in the promotor region of acute phase genes and transcription is induced. Systemic inflammation results in a systemic acute phase response. However, local inflammatory or injurious processes in the liver may also induce an acute phase response, for example after partial hepatectomy and during hepatic fibrosis. The acute phase proteins induced in these conditions probably act to limit proteolytic and/or fibrogenic activity and tissue damage. The possible function of the acute phase protein alpha 2-macroglobulin in hepatic fibrosis is discussed in some detail.
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              Production of C-reactive protein and risk of coronary events in stable and unstable angina


                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                17 January 2002
                : 20
                : 1
                : 113-119
                aDepartments of Basic Science, Craniofacial Biology and Periodontics, New York University College of Dentistry, bDivision of Nephrology, Beth Israel Medical Center, and cRenal Research Institute New York, NY., USA
                46994 Blood Purif 2002;20:113–119
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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