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      Loads of trematodes: discovering hidden diversity of paramphistomoids in Kenyan ruminants

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          Paramphistomoids are ubiquitous and widespread digeneans that infect a diverse range of definitive hosts, being particularly speciose in ruminants. We collected adult worms from cattle, goats and sheep from slaughterhouses, and cercariae from freshwater snails from ten localities in Central and West Kenya. We sequenced cox1 (690 bp) and internal transcribed region 2 (ITS2) (385 bp) genes from a small piece of 79 different adult worms and stained and mounted the remaining worm bodies for comparisons with available descriptions. We also sequenced cox1 and ITS2 from 41 cercariae/rediae samples collected from four different genera of planorbid snails. Combining morphological observations, host use information, genetic distance values and phylogenetic methods, we delineated 16 distinct clades of paramphistomoids. For four of the 16 clades, sequences from adult worms and cercariae/rediae matched, providing an independent assessment for their life cycles. Much work is yet to be done to resolve fully the relationships among paramphistomoids, but some correspondence between sequence- and anatomically based classifications were noted. Paramphistomoids of domestic ruminants provide one of the most abundant sources of parasitic flatworm biomass, and because of the predilection of several species use Bulinus and Biomphalaria snail hosts, have interesting linkages with the biology of animal and human schistosomes to in Africa.

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          Most cited references 51

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          MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0.

          We announce the release of an advanced version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, which currently contains facilities for building sequence alignments, inferring phylogenetic histories, and conducting molecular evolutionary analysis. In version 6.0, MEGA now enables the inference of timetrees, as it implements the RelTime method for estimating divergence times for all branching points in a phylogeny. A new Timetree Wizard in MEGA6 facilitates this timetree inference by providing a graphical user interface (GUI) to specify the phylogeny and calibration constraints step-by-step. This version also contains enhanced algorithms to search for the optimal trees under evolutionary criteria and implements a more advanced memory management that can double the size of sequence data sets to which MEGA can be applied. Both GUI and command-line versions of MEGA6 can be downloaded from free of charge.
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            MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models.

            MrBayes 3 performs Bayesian phylogenetic analysis combining information from different data partitions or subsets evolving under different stochastic evolutionary models. This allows the user to analyze heterogeneous data sets consisting of different data types-e.g. morphological, nucleotide, and protein-and to explore a wide variety of structured models mixing partition-unique and shared parameters. The program employs MPI to parallelize Metropolis coupling on Macintosh or UNIX clusters.
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              DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates.

              We describe "universal" DNA primers for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a 710-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI) from 11 invertebrate phyla: Echinodermata, Mollusca, Annelida, Pogonophora, Arthropoda, Nemertinea, Echiura, Sipuncula, Platyhelminthes, Tardigrada, and Coelenterata, as well as the putative phylum Vestimentifera. Preliminary comparisons revealed that these COI primers generate informative sequences for phylogenetic analyses at the species and higher taxonomic levels.

                Author and article information

                Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, UK )
                February 2017
                20 October 2016
                : 144
                : 2
                : 131-147
                [1 ]Department of Biology, Center for Evolutionary and Theoretical Immunology, Parasite Division Museum of Southwestern Biology, University of New Mexico , 167 Castetter MSCO3 2020 Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, USA
                [2 ]Center for Biotechnology Research and Development, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) , P.O. Box 54840-00200, Nairobi, Kenya
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Center for Evolutionary and Theoretical Immunology, University of New Mexico , Department of Biology, 167 Castetter MSCO3 2020, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, USA. E-mail: mlaidemitt@
                S0031182016001827 00182
                © Cambridge University Press 2016

                This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Figures: 3, Tables: 5, References: 83, Pages: 17
                Research Article


                paramphistomoidea, biodiversity, dna barcode, host specificity, schistosoma


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