Testicular and adrenal function were evaluated in 12 patients with adrenoleukodystrophy and 2 patients with adrenomyeloneuropathy. Although only 5 subjects had clinical symptoms suggesting adrenal insufficiency, an additional 5 showed laboratory evidence of reduced adrenal reserve. 9 of the 14 patients developed neurological deficits prior to the onset of clinical or biological adrenal insufficiency. In the remaining 5 patients, adrenal insufficiency antedated the appearance of neurological symptoms; 2 of these 5 patients had only laboratory evidence of hypoadrenocorticism, and 3 had both clinical and laboratory abnormalities. None of the prepubertal patients had detectable signs of testicular insufficiency, while 3 of the 7 pubertal/adult patients had elevated serum LH or FSH levels. This mild testicular deficiency was seen only in association with clinical adrenal insufficiency and significant neurological impairment.