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      COVID-19 en el enfermo renal. Revisión breve Translated title: COVID-19 in renal patient. Brief Review

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          Abstract

          Resumen En diciembre de 2019 se identificó en China una nueva subespecie de coronavirus al que denominaron SARS-CoV-2, responsable de la enfermedad posterior a la que la OMS llamó COVID-19. La enfermedad se ha propagado rápidamente provocando una pandemia mundial. Todavía se desconoce mucho del SARS-CoV-2, pero las primeras investigaciones respaldan la hipótesis de que la gravedad de la COVID-19 viene condicionada por la respuesta hiperinflamatoria que se produce en nuestro organismo al contacto con el SARS-CoV-2. La gravedad del cuadro se relaciona con la insuficiencia respiratoria que provoca, no obstante, existen estudios que no limitan la afectación pulmonar. Investigaciones apuntan a que el mecanismo de acceso del SARS-CoV-2 al organismo está muy relacionado con la enzima ACE2. Enzima que entre otros tejidos, se puede encontrar en el epitelio de las células tubulares renales. Esta es la causa por la que existen datos de pacientes con COVID-19 que tienen una gran afectación en la función renal y pueden cursar con IRA (factor de mal pronóstico). Por este motivo, unido a que las comorbilidades asociadas con una mayor mortalidad durante la infección COVID-19 son comunes en los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica, creemos necesario conocer los resultados que aportan los diferentes estudios realizados sobre esa materia.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract In December 2019, a new subspecies of coronavirus was identified in China, which was named SARS-CoV-2, responsible for the disease that WHO called COVID-19. The disease has spread rapidly causing a global pandemic. Much is still unknown about SARS-CoV-2, but the first findings support the hypothesis that the severity of COVID-19 is conditioned by the hyperinflammatory response, which occurs in our body after contacting SARS-CoV-2. The severity of the symptoms is conditioned by the respiratory failure caused, however there are studies that are not limited to lung involvement. Evidence suggests that the access mechanism of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is closely related to the ACE2 enzyme. An enzyme that, among other tissues, can be found in the epithelium of renal tubular cells. For this reason, there are data on patients with COVID-19 who are severely affected in kidney function and may have acute kidney failure (a poor prognostic factor). For this reason, together with the fact that the comorbidities associated with a higher mortality during COVID-19 infection are common in patients with chronic kidney disease, it is necessary to know the available evidence on this matter.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Coronavirus Disease 19 Infection Does Not Result in Acute Kidney Injury: An Analysis of 116 Hospitalized Patients from Wuhan, China

           Luwen Wang,  Xun Li,  Hui Chen (2020)
          Background Whether the patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 would commonly develop acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important issue worthy of clinical attention. This study aimed to explore the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on renal function through analyzing the clinical data of 116 hospitalized COVID-19-confirmed patients. Methods One hundred sixteen COVID-19-confirmed patients enrolled in this study were hospitalized in the Department of Infectious Diseases, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 14 to February 13, 2020. The recorded information includes demographic data, medical history, contact history, potential comorbidities, symptoms, signs, laboratory test results, chest computer tomography scans, and treatment measures. SARS-CoV-2 RNA in 53 urine sediments of enrolled patients was detected by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results Twelve (10.8%) patients showed mild increase of blood urea nitrogen or creatinine (<26 μmol/L within 48 h), and 8 (7.2%) patients showed trace or 1+ albuminuria in 111 COVID-19-confirmed patients without chronic kidney disease (CKD). All these patients did not meet the diagnostic criteria of AKI. In addition, 5 patients with CKD who were undergone regular continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) before admission were confirmed infection of SARS-CoV-2 and diagnosed as COVID-19. In addition to therapy for COVID-19, CRRT was also applied 3 times weekly during hospitalization for these 5 patients with CKD. In the course of treatment, the renal function indicators showed stable state in all 5 patients with CKD, without exacerbation of CKD, and pulmonary inflammation was gradually absorbed. All 5 patients with CKD were survived. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 RNA in urine sediments was positive only in 3 patients from 48 cases without CKD, and 1 patient had a positive for SARS-CoV-2 open reading frame 1ab from 5 cases with CKD. Conclusion AKI was uncommon in COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 infection does not result in AKI, or aggravate CKD in the COVID-19 patients.
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            COVID‐19 in solid organ transplant recipients: A single‐center case series from Spain

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              COVID-19 in post-transplantation patients- report of two cases

              Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic since March 2020. We describe here 2 cases of COVID-19 infection in a posttransplant setting. First one is a 59-year-old renal transplant recipient; the second is a 51-year-old allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipient. Both patients were on immunosuppressant therapy and had stable graft function before COVID-19 infection. After the diagnosis of COVID-19, immunosuppressive agents were discontinued and methylprednisolone with prophylactic antibiotics were initiated, however, the lung injury progressed. The T cells were extremely low in both patients after infection. Both patients died despite the maximal mechanical ventilatory support. Therefore, the prognosis of COVID-19 pneumonia following transplantation is not optimistic and remains guarded. Lower T cell count may be a surrogate for poor outcome.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                enefro
                Enfermería Nefrológica
                Enferm Nefrol
                Sociedad Española de Enfermería Nefrológica (Madrid, Madrid, Spain )
                2254-2884
                2255-3517
                June 2020
                : 23
                : 2
                : 122-131
                Affiliations
                Cataluña orgnameUniversitat de Barcelona Spain
                Cataluña orgnameUniversitat de Barcelona orgdiv1Facultad de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud orgdiv2Departamento de Enfermería Fundamental y Médico Quirúrgica Spain
                Article
                S2254-28842020000200002 S2254-2884(20)02300200002
                10.37551/s2254-28842020013

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 64, Pages: 10
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