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      Improving smoking cessation care in pregnancy at Aboriginal Medical Services: ‘ICAN QUIT in Pregnancy’ step-wedge cluster randomised study

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          This study aimed to examine the impact of the ‘ICAN QUIT in Pregnancy’ intervention on individual health providers (HPs) smoking cessation care (SCC) knowledge, attitudes and practices in general, and specifically regarding nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) prescription.


          Step-wedge clustered randomised controlled study. HPs answered a preintervention and 1–6 months postintervention survey.


          Six Aboriginal Medical Services (AMSs) in three states of Australia.


          All HPs were invited to participate. Of 93 eligible, 50 consented (54%), 45 completed the presurvey (90%) and 20 the post (40%).


          Included three 1-hour webinar sessions, educational resource package and free oral NRT.


          HPs knowledge was measured using two composite scores—one from all 24 true/false statements, and one from 12 NRT-specific statements. Self-assessment of 22 attitudes to providing SCC were measured using a five-point Likert scale (Strongly disagree to Strongly agree). Two composite mean scores were calculated—one for 15 general SCC attitudes, and one for 7 NRT-specific attitudes. Self-reported provision of SCC components was measured on a five-point Likert scale (Never to Always). Feasibility outcomes, and data collected on the service and patient level are reported elsewhere.


          Mean knowledge composite scores improved from pre to post (78% vs 84% correct, difference 5.95, 95% CI 1.57 to 10.32). Mean NRT-specific knowledge composite score also improved (68% vs 79% correct, difference 9.9, 95% CI 3.66 to 16.14). Mean attitude composite score improved (3.65 (SD 0.4) to 3.87 (SD 0.4), difference 0.23, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.41). Mean NRT-specific attitudes composite score also improved (3.37 (SD 0.6) to 3.64 (SD 0.7), difference 0.36, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.6). Self-reported practices were unchanged, including prescribing NRT.


          A multicomponent culturally sensitive intervention in AMSs was feasible, and might improve HPs provision of SCC to pregnant Aboriginal women. Changes in NRT prescription rates may require additional intensive measures.

          Trial registration number

          ACTRN 12616001603404; Results.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Individual determinants of research utilization by nurses: a systematic review update

          Background Interventions that have a better than random chance of increasing nurses' use of research are important to the delivery of quality patient care. However, few reports exist of successful research utilization in nursing interventions. Systematic identification and evaluation of individual characteristics associated with and predicting research utilization may inform the development of research utilization interventions. Objective To update the evidence published in a previous systematic review on individual characteristics influencing research utilization by nurses. Methods As part of a larger systematic review on research utilization instruments, 12 online bibliographic databases were searched. Hand searching of specialized journals and an ancestry search was also conducted. Randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, and observational study designs examining the association between individual characteristics and nurses' use of research were eligible for inclusion. Studies were limited to those published in the English, Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian languages. A vote counting approach to data synthesis was taken. Results A total of 42,770 titles were identified, of which 501 were retrieved. Of these 501 articles, 45 satisfied our inclusion criteria. Articles assessed research utilization in general (n = 39) or kinds of research utilization (n = 6) using self-report survey measures. Individual nurse characteristics were classified according to six categories: beliefs and attitudes, involvement in research activities, information seeking, education, professional characteristics, and socio-demographic/socio-economic characteristics. A seventh category, critical thinking, emerged in studies examining kinds of research utilization. Positive relationships, at statistically significant levels, for general research utilization were found in four categories: beliefs and attitudes, information seeking, education, and professional characteristics. The only characteristic assessed in a sufficient number of studies and with consistent findings for the kinds of research utilization was attitude towards research; this characteristic had a positive association with instrumental and overall research utilization. Conclusions This review reinforced conclusions in the previous review with respect to positive relationships between general research utilization and: beliefs and attitudes, and current role. Furthermore, attending conferences/in-services, having a graduate degree in nursing, working in a specialty area, and job satisfaction were also identified as individual characteristics important to research utilization. While these findings hold promise as potential targets of future research utilization interventions, there were methodological problems inherent in many of the studies that necessitate their findings be replicated in further research using more robust study designs and multivariate assessment methods.
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            Psychosocial interventions for supporting women to stop smoking in pregnancy

            Tobacco smoking remains one of the few preventable factors associated with complications in pregnancy, and has serious long-term implications for women and babies. Smoking in pregnancy is decreasing in high-income countries, but is strongly associated with poverty and is increasing in low- to middle-income countries.
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              Developmental toxicity of nicotine: A transdisciplinary synthesis and implications for emerging tobacco products.

              While the health risks associated with adult cigarette smoking have been well described, effects of nicotine exposure during periods of developmental vulnerability are often overlooked. Using MEDLINE and PubMed literature searches, books, reports and expert opinion, a transdisciplinary group of scientists reviewed human and animal research on the health effects of exposure to nicotine during pregnancy and adolescence. A synthesis of this research supports that nicotine contributes critically to adverse effects of gestational tobacco exposure, including reduced pulmonary function, auditory processing defects, impaired infant cardiorespiratory function, and may contribute to cognitive and behavioral deficits in later life. Nicotine exposure during adolescence is associated with deficits in working memory, attention, and auditory processing, as well as increased impulsivity and anxiety. Finally, recent animal studies suggest that nicotine has a priming effect that increases addiction liability for other drugs. The evidence that nicotine adversely affects fetal and adolescent development is sufficient to warrant public health measures to protect pregnant women, children, and adolescents from nicotine exposure.

                Author and article information

                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                4 June 2019
                : 9
                : 6
                [1 ] departmentSchool of Medicine and Public Health , University of Newcastle , Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia
                [2 ] departmentWollotuka Institute , University of Newcastle , Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia
                [3 ] departmentClinical Research Design, Information Technology and Statistical Support (CReDITSS) Unit , Hunter Medical Research Institute , Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia
                [4 ] departmentUCL Centre for Behaviour Change , University College London , London, UK
                [5 ] departmentSchool of Medicine , Western Sydney University , Penrith South DC, New South Wales, Australia
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Dr Yael Bar-Zeev; yael.barzeev@ 123456uon.edu.au
                © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

                This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

                Funded by: Hunter Cancer Research Alliance;
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100008810, NSW Ministry of Health;
                Smoking and Tobacco
                Custom metadata


                smoking cessation, health providers, indigenous, pregnancy


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