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      Identification of mutations in the alpha 3(IV) and alpha 4(IV) collagen genes in autosomal recessive Alport syndrome.

      Nature genetics

      Adolescent, Amino Acid Sequence, Base Sequence, Child, Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2, Collagen, genetics, Female, Genes, Recessive, Humans, Male, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutation, Nephritis, Hereditary, Pedigree

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          Abstract

          Alport syndrome (AS) is an hereditary disease of basement membranes characterized by progressive renal failure and deafness. Changes in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) in AS suggest that the type IV collagen matrix, the major structural component of GBM, is disrupted. We recently isolated the genes for two type IV collagens, alpha 3(IV) and alpha 4(IV), that are encoded head-to-head on human chromosome 2. These chains are abundant in normal GBM but are sometimes absent in AS. We screened for mutations in families in which consanguinity suggested autosomal recessive inheritance. Homozygous mutations were found in alpha 3(IV) in two families and in alpha 4(IV) in two others, demonstrating that these chains are important in the structural integrity of the GBM and that there is an autosomal form of AS in addition to the previously-defined X-linked form.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Isolation of biologically active ribonucleic acid from sources enriched in ribonuclease

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            Identification of mutations in the COL4A5 collagen gene in Alport syndrome.

            X-linked Alport syndrome is a hereditary glomerulonephritis in which progressive loss of kidney function is often accompanied by progressive loss of hearing. Ultrastructural defects in glomerular basement membranes (GBM) of Alport syndrome patients implicate an altered structural protein as the cause of nephritis. The product of COL4A5, the alpha 5(IV) collagen chain, is a specific component of GBM within the kidney, and the gene maps to the same X chromosomal region as does Alport syndrome. Three structural aberrations were found in COL4A5, in intragenic deletion, a Pst I site variant, and an uncharacterized abnormality, which appear to cause nephritis and deafness, with allele-specific severity, in three Alport syndrome kindreds in Utah.
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              Structure and biological activity of basement membrane proteins.

               R Timpl (1989)
              Collagen type IV, laminin, heparan sulfate proteoglycans, nidogen (entactin) and BM-40 (osteonectin, SPARC) represent major structural proteins of basement membranes. They are well-characterized in their domain structures, amino acid sequences and potentials for molecular interactions. Such interactions include self-assembly processes and heterotypic binding between individual constituents, as well as binding of calcium (laminin, BM-40) and are likely to be used for basement membrane assembly. Laminin, collagen IV and nidogen also possess several cell-binding sites which interact with distinct cellular receptors. Some evidence exists that those interactions are involved in the control of cell behaviour. These observations have provided a more defined understanding of basement membrane function and the definition of new research goals in the future.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                7987396
                10.1038/ng0994-77

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