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      Development of Chrysomya megacephala at constant temperatures within its colony range in Yangtze River Delta region of China


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          Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) is the most abundant and predominant species which arrives and colonizes a cadaver first in most parts of China. Therefore, its growth and development patterns have great implications in the estimation of the minimum postmortem interval (PMI min). In this study, C. megacephala was collected from the Yangtze River Delta region and reared at seven constant temperatures ranging from 16 °C to 34 °C. The developmental duration and accumulated degree hours, larval body length and morphological changes of C. megacephala were examined. Furthermore, we constructed three developmental models, isomorphen diagram, isomegalen diagram and thermal summation model, which can be used for estimating PMI min. The developmental durations of C. megacephala at 16 °C, 19 °C, 22 °C, 25 °C, 28 °C, 31 °C and 34 °C are (794.8 ± 14.7), (533.2 ± 10.1), (377.8 ± 16.8), (280.8 ± 15.1), (218.9 ± 8.5), (190.8 ± 10.1) and (171.8 ± 6.8) h, respectively. The developmental threshold temperature D 0 is (11.41 ± 0.32) °C, and the thermal summation constant K is (3 418.7 ± 137.0) degree hours. Regression analysis was conducted to obtain equations of the variation in larval body length with time after hatching, and variation in time after hatching with body length. Moreover, our study divides the intra-puparial morphological changes of C. megacephala into 11 sub-stages, and provides the time range experienced by each sub-stage. The results of this study provide fundamental development data for the use of C. megacephala in PMI min estimations.

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          Best practice in forensic entomology--standards and guidelines.

          Forensic entomology, the use of insects and other arthropods in forensic investigations, is becoming increasingly more important in such investigations. To ensure its optimal use by a diverse group of professionals including pathologists, entomologists and police officers, a common frame of guidelines and standards is essential. Therefore, the European Association for Forensic Entomology has developed a protocol document for best practice in forensic entomology, which includes an overview of equipment used for collection of entomological evidence and a detailed description of the methods applied. Together with the definitions of key terms and a short introduction to the most important methods for the estimation of the minimum postmortem interval, the present paper aims to encourage a high level of competency in the field of forensic entomology.
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            Forensic entomology: applications and limitations.

            Forensic entomology is the science of collecting and analysing insect evidence to aid in forensic investigations. Its main application is in the determination of the minimum time since death in cases of suspicious death, either by estimating the age of the oldest necrophagous insects that developed on the corpse, or by analysing the insect species composition on the corpse. In addition, toxicological and molecular examinations of these insects may help reveal the cause of death or even the identity of a victim, by associating a larva with its last meal, for example, in cases where insect evidence is left at a scene after human remains have been deliberately removed. Some fly species can develop not only on corpses but on living bodies too, causing myiasis. Analysis of larvae in such cases can demonstrate the period of neglect of humans or animals. Without the appropriate professional collection of insect evidence, an accurate and convincing presentation of such evidence in court will be hampered or even impossible. The present paper describes the principles and methods of forensic entomology and the optimal techniques for collecting insect evidence.
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              Minimum and maximum development rates of some forensically important Calliphoridae (Diptera).

              Blow fly development rates are frequently used to estimate elapsed time since death in homicide investigations in the first few weeks after death. However, in order to make more precise estimates of time since death, accurate developmental data must be generated for all carrion species, and at temperatures that are comparable with those found at crime scenes. This paper presents developmental rates determined for five forensically important species in British Columbia, Phormia regina (Meigen), Phaenicia sericata (Meigen), Eucalliphora latifrons (Hough), Lucilia illustris (Meigen), and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, at several temperatures.

                Author and article information

                Forensic Sci Res
                Forensic Sci Res
                Forensic sciences research
                Taylor & Francis
                21 December 2017
                : 3
                : 1 , Special Issue on Forensic Entomology
                : 74-82
                Department of Forensic Medicine, Soochow University , Suzhou, China
                Author notes

                These authors contributed equally to the study.

                © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis Group on behalf of the Academy of Forensic Science.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 18 August 2017
                : 07 November 2017
                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 6, References: 43, Pages: 9
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China 10.13039/501100001809
                Award ID: 30870332, 81273352
                Funded by: Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education
                This study was supported by the grant from National Natural Science Foundation of China [grant numbers 30870332 and 81273352]; Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education.
                Original Article

                forensic science,forensic entomology,oriental latrine fly,development time,isomorphen/isomegalen diagram,thermal summation model,intra-puparial development


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