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      Nitrogen Recycling and Flowering Time in Perennial Bioenergy Crops

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          Abstract

          Perennials have a number of traits important for profitability and sustainability of a biofuel crop. Perennialism is generally defined as the ability to grow and reproduce in multiple years. In temperate climates, many perennial plants enter dormancy during winter and recycle nutrients, such as nitrogen, to below ground structures for the next growing season. Nitrogen is expensive to produce and application of nitrogen increases the potent greenhouse gas NO x . Perennial bioenergy crops have been evaluated for biomass yields with nitrogen fertilization, location, year, and genotype as variables. Flowering time and dormancy are closely related to the N recycling program. Substantial variation for flowering time and dormancy has been identified in the switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.) species, which provides a source to identify the genetic components of N recycling, and for use in breeding programs. Some studies have addressed recycling specifically, but flowering time and developmental differences were largely ignored, complicating interpretation of the results. Future studies on recycling need to appreciate plant developmental stage to allow comparison between experiments. A perennial/annual model(s) and more environmentally controlled experiments would be useful to determine the genetic components of nitrogen recycling. Increasing biomass yield per unit of nitrogen by maximizing recycling might mean the difference for profitability of a biofuel crop and has the added benefit of minimizing negative environmental effects from agriculture.

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          N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels

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            The Biology and Agronomy of Switchgrass for Biofuels

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              Describing and Quantifying Growth Stages of Perennial Forage Grasses

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-462X
                22 April 2013
                2013
                : 4
                : 76
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI, USA
                Author notes

                Edited by: Samuel P. Hazen, University of Massachusetts, USA

                Reviewed by: Zeng-Yu Wang, The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, USA; Jiading Yang, The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, USA

                *Correspondence: Richard Amasino, Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 433 Babcock Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA. e-mail: amasino@ 123456biochem.wisc.edu

                This article was submitted to Frontiers in Plant Biotechnology, a specialty of Frontiers in Plant Science.

                Article
                10.3389/fpls.2013.00076
                3631613
                23626592
                45d1a2e6-e444-4312-93d3-5b74c5c35a7c
                Copyright © 2013 Schwartz and Amasino.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and subject to any copyright notices concerning any third-party graphics etc.

                History
                : 30 December 2012
                : 17 March 2013
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 64, Pages: 7, Words: 5800
                Categories
                Plant Science
                Mini Review

                Plant science & Botany
                nitrogen recycling,perennialism,switchgrass,flowering time,dormancy,bioenergy crops

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