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Curcumin, A Potential Therapeutic Candidate for Anterior Segment Eye Diseases: A Review

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      Abstract

      Curcumin, the major curcuminoid of the turmeric, has been extensively used in many countries since ancient time for preventing and/or treating a multitude of diseases. This review is to illustrate the researches on the properties of curcumin and its potential therapeutic efficacy in major anterior segment eye diseases. The bio-medical potential of curcumin is restricted because of its low solubility and digestive bioavailability. This review will discuss promising research in improving curcumin bioavailability through structural modification. In vitro and in vivo research made progress in studying the beneficial effects of curcumin on major anterior segment eye diseases, including anti-angiogenesis effect in corneal diseases; anti-inflammation or anti-allergy effects in dry eye disease, conjunctivitis, anterior uveitis; anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis effects in pterygium; anti-oxidative stress, anti-osmotic stress, anti-lipid peroxidation, pro-apoptosis, regulating calcium homeostasis, sequestrating free radicals, protein modification and degradation effects in cataracts; neuroprotective effects in glaucoma. Curcumin exhibited to be a potent therapeutic candidate for treating those anterior segment eye diseases.

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      The number of people with glaucoma worldwide in 2010 and 2020.

      To estimate the number of people with open angle (OAG) and angle closure glaucoma (ACG) in 2010 and 2020. A review of published data with use of prevalence models. Data from population based studies of age specific prevalence of OAG and ACG that satisfied standard definitions were used to construct prevalence models for OAG and ACG by age, sex, and ethnicity, weighting data proportional to sample size of each study. Models were combined with UN world population projections for 2010 and 2020 to derive the estimated number with glaucoma. There will be 60.5 million people with OAG and ACG in 2010, increasing to 79.6 million by 2020, and of these, 74% will have OAG. Women will comprise 55% of OAG, 70% of ACG, and 59% of all glaucoma in 2010. Asians will represent 47% of those with glaucoma and 87% of those with ACG. Bilateral blindness will be present in 4.5 million people with OAG and 3.9 million people with ACG in 2010, rising to 5.9 and 5.3 million people in 2020, respectively. Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, disproportionately affecting women and Asians.
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        Bioavailability of curcumin: problems and promises.

        Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound derived from dietary spice turmeric, possesses diverse pharmacologic effects including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activities. Phase I clinical trials have shown that curcumin is safe even at high doses (12 g/day) in humans but exhibit poor bioavailability. Major reasons contributing to the low plasma and tissue levels of curcumin appear to be due to poor absorption, rapid metabolism, and rapid systemic elimination. To improve the bioavailability of curcumin, numerous approaches have been undertaken. These approaches involve, first, the use of adjuvant like piperine that interferes with glucuronidation; second, the use of liposomal curcumin; third, curcumin nanoparticles; fourth, the use of curcumin phospholipid complex; and fifth, the use of structural analogues of curcumin (e.g., EF-24). The latter has been reported to have a rapid absorption with a peak plasma half-life. Despite the lower bioavailability, therapeutic efficacy of curcumin against various human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, arthritis, neurological diseases and Crohn's disease, has been documented. Enhanced bioavailability of curcumin in the near future is likely to bring this promising natural product to the forefront of therapeutic agents for treatment of human disease.
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          The definition and classification of dry eye disease: report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007).

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          The aim of the DEWS Definition and Classification Subcommittee was to provide a contemporary definition of dry eye disease, supported within a comprehensive classification framework. A new definition of dry eye was developed to reflect current understanding of the disease, and the committee recommended a three-part classification system. The first part is etiopathogenic and illustrates the multiple causes of dry eye. The second is mechanistic and shows how each cause of dry eye may act through a common pathway. It is stressed that any form of dry eye can interact with and exacerbate other forms of dry eye, as part of a vicious circle. Finally, a scheme is presented, based on the severity of the dry eye disease, which is expected to provide a rational basis for therapy. These guidelines are not intended to override the clinical assessment and judgment of an expert clinician in individual cases, but they should prove helpful in the conduct of clinical practice and research.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1Department of Ophthalmology, The First Hospital of Jilin University Changchun, China
            2Department of Neurosurgery, The People’s Hospital of Jilin Province Changchun, China
            3Department of Molecular Pathology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Manhattan NY, USA
            4Department of Gastroenterology, The First Hospital of Jilin University Changchun, China
            5Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Jilin University Changchun, China
            Author notes

            Edited by: Adolfo Andrade-Cetto, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico

            Reviewed by: Kayo Masuko, Sanno Medical Center, Japan; Pinarosa Avato, University of Bari, Italy

            *Correspondence: Cheng-Wei Lu, lcwchina800@ 123456sina.com Dan-Dan Zhou, zhoudan0928@ 123456sohu.com

            These authors are co-first authors.

            This article was submitted to Ethnopharmacology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology

            Contributors
            Journal
            Front Pharmacol
            Front Pharmacol
            Front. Pharmacol.
            Frontiers in Pharmacology
            Frontiers Media S.A.
            1663-9812
            14 February 2017
            2017
            : 8
            5306202
            10.3389/fphar.2017.00066
            Copyright © 2017 Liu, Hao, Xie, Mukhtar, Zhang, Malik, Lu and Zhou.

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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            Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 108, Pages: 13, Words: 0
            Categories
            Pharmacology
            Review

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