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      Determinantes socioeconómicos y demográficos del gasto en alcohol de las familias del área urbana del altiplano boliviano Translated title: Socioeconomic and demographic determinants of household expenditure on alcohol in the urban area of the Bolivian highlands


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          El alcohol es el principal factor de riesgo de muerte y discapacidad en edades tempranas, afectando desproporcionadamente a grupos vulnerables específicos. Analizamos las características socioeconómicas y demográficas de los hogares urbanos del altiplano boliviano y su relación con el gasto en alcohol, empleando un modelo de corrección de sesgo de selección, con datos de la Encuesta de Hogares 2013. En un entorno con heterogeneidad cultural (43% indígena) e informalidad en el mercado de alcohol, encontramos que la condición indígena, el género y el hábito de fumar son determinantes en el monto que destinan los hogares a bebidas alcohólicas para consumir fuera del hogar. Si bien el ingreso del hogar determina la decisión de compra, no afecta el nivel gasto. Estos hallazgos señalan algunos conductores de vulnerabilidad en grupos específicos y justifican un abordaje estratégico desde la perspectiva de la salud pública, en cuanto a políticas específicas de alcohol en Bolivia.

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          Alcohol is the leading risk factor for early death and disability, and it affects disproportionately specific vulnerable groups. We analyze the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics ofthe urban households of the Bolivian highlands, and its relation with their expenditure on alcohol, employing a sample selection model, based on secondary data from the 2013 household survey. In an environment with cultural heterogeneity (43% indigenous) and informality in the alcohol market, our findings suggest that the indigenous condition ofthe household, the gender and smoking habit of their adult members are determinant in the household expenditure on alcohol for consumption out-of-home. Although the income level determines the purchase decision, it does not affect the expenditure size. These findings allow identifying the vulnerability conductors in specific groups of the population and justify the development of a strategic approach from the public heath perspective, for the formulation of alcohol policies in Bolivia.

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          Most cited references29

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          Energy intake from beverages is increasing among Mexican adolescents and adults.

          Little is understood about the patterns and trends in adolescent and adult beverage intake in Mexico or most other countries. Here, we used nationally representative dietary intake, income, and food expenditure surveys, which included 416 adolescents (aged 12-18 y) and 2180 adults (aged >or=19 y) from the 1999 Mexican Nutrition Survey and 7464 adolescents and 21,113 adults from the 2006 Mexican Health and Nutrition Survey. We measured the volume and energy per day contributed by all beverages consumed by the sample subjects. In 2006, Mexican adolescents and adults obtained 20.1 and 22.3%, respectively, of their energy intake from energy-containing beverages. Whole milk, carbonated and noncarbonated sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit juice with various sugar and water combinations added, and alcohol represented the 4 major categories of beverage intake. The trends from the dietary intake surveys showed very large increases in the intake of energy-containing beverages among adolescents and adults between 1999 and 2006. Income elasticities showed a high likelihood that intakes will increase as Mexican incomes continue to rise. Whereas the own-price elasticities for whole milk and sodas were both modest, intakes of these were increasing and higher than those for all other food groups. Energy intake trends and current levels of beverage intakes in Mexico are the highest recorded in a nationally representative survey and present major challenges for public health authorities.
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            Youth alcohol consumption is a major global public health concern. Previous reviews have concluded that exposure to alcohol marketing was associated with earlier drinking initiation and higher alcohol consumption among youth. This review examined longitudinal studies published since those earlier reviews.
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              Technical efficiency in the use of health care resources: a comparison of OECD countries.

              Our paper analyzes technical efficiency in the production of aggregate health outcomes of reduced infant mortality and increased life expectancy, using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) health data. Application of data envelopment analysis (DEA) reveals that some countries achieve relative efficiency advantages, including those with good health outcomes (Japan, Sweden, Norway, and Canada) and those with modest health outcomes (Mexico and Turkey). We conclude the USA may learn from countries more economical in their allocation of healthcare resources that more is not necessarily better. Specifically, we find that the USA can substantially reduce inputs while maintaining the current level of life expectancy.

                Author and article information

                Revista Perspectivas
                Universidad Católica Boliviana San Pablo, Unidad Académica Regional Cochabamba (Cochabamba, , Bolivia )
                May 2019
                : 43
                : 51-78
                [01] Córdoba orgnameUniversidad Nacional de Córdoba orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Económicas Argentina a.carrazana.r@ 123456gmail.com
                [02] Córdoba orgnameUniversidad Nacional de Córdoba orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Económicas orgdiv2Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Económicas (CIECS CONICET-UNC) Argentina mdsantis@ 123456eco.unc.edu.ar
                S1994-37332019000100003 S1994-3733(19)00004300003

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                : 30 January 2019
                : 28 March 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 29, Pages: 28

                SciELO Bolivia

                Self URI: Texto completo solamente en formato PDF (ES)

                Economía del hogar,selección de muestra,salud pública,consumo de alcohol,sample selection,public health,alcohol consumption,Household economics


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