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      Clinical Expectation of Online Hemodiafiltration: A Japanese Perspective

      review-article
      a , * , b
      Blood Purification
      S. Karger AG
      Online hemodiafiltration, Predilution mode, Postdilution mode, Japan

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          Abstract

          Many pieces of evidence of online hemodiafiltration (HDF) have been reported, and the clinical advantage of postdilution online HDF with sufficient substitution is now established. After the approval of online HDF in 2012, the number of online HDF patients has been dramatically increasing in Japan and reached 10% of the total dialysis population at the end of 2013. One of the marked characteristics of Japanese online HDF is a widespread use of predilution treatment and, in 2013, 90.8% of online HDFs were carried out with the predilution mode. The main reason for the wide use of predilution online HDF results from the low blood flow rate in Japan, by which it is difficult to substitute a sufficient volume during the limited treatment time. Other reasons to choose the predilution mode include the reduction of albumin loss and the suppression of membrane fouling during treatment. Contrary to postdilution treatment, adequate clinical evidence has not been reported for predilution online HDF to provide a better outcome of the patients. A further clinical trial is expected to elucidate the clinical advantages over conventional hemodialysis for predilution online HDF.

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          Most cited references15

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          An overview of regular dialysis treatment in Japan (as of 31 December 2012).

          A nationwide statistical survey of 4279 dialysis facilities was conducted at the end of 2012, among which 4238 responded (99.0%). The number of new dialysis patients was 38055 in 2012. Since 2008, the number of new dialysis patients has remained almost the same without any marked increase or decrease. The number of dialysis patients who died in 2012 was 30710; a slight decrease from 2011 (30743). The dialysis patient population has been growing every year in Japan; it was 310007 at the end of 2012, which exceeded 310000 for the first time. The number of dialysis patients per million at the end of 2012 was 2431.2. The crude death rate of dialysis patients in 2012 was 10.0%, a slight decrease from that in 2011 (10.2%). The mean age of new dialysis patients was 68.5 years and the mean age of the entire dialysis patient population was 66.9 years. The most common primary cause of renal failure among new dialysis patients was diabetic nephropathy (44.2%). The actual number of new dialysis patients with diabetic nephropathy has been approximately 16000 for the last few years. Diabetic nephropathy was also the most common primary disease among the entire dialysis patient population (37.1%), followed by chronic glomerulonephritis (33.6%). The percentage of dialysis patients with diabetic nephropathy has been continuously increasing, whereas not only the percentage but also the actual number of dialysis patients with chronic glomerulonephritis has decreased. The number of patients who underwent hemodiafiltration (HDF) at the end of 2012 was 21725, a marked increase from that in 2011 (14115). In particular, the number of patients who underwent on-line HDF increased threefold from 4890 in 2011 to 14069 in 2012. From the results of the facility survey, the number of patients who underwent peritoneal dialysis (PD) was 9514 and that of patients who did not undergo PD despite having a PD catheter in the abdominal cavity was 347. From the results of the patient survey, among the PD patients, 1932 also underwent another dialysis method using extracorporeal circulation, such as hemodialysis (HD) and HDF. The number of patients who underwent HD at home in 2012 was 393, a marked increase from that in 2011 (327).
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            Circulatory Mitochondrial DNA Is a Pro-Inflammatory Agent in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

            Chronic inflammation is highly prevalent in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients, and it has been shown to be a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) released into circulation after cell damage can promote inflammation in patients and animal models. However, the role and mechanisms of circulatory mtDNA in chronic inflammation in MHD patients remain unknown. Sixty MHD patients and 20 health controls were enrolled in this study. The circulatory mtDNA was detected by quantitative real-time PCR assay. Plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were quantitated by ELISA assay. Dialysis systems in MHD patients and in vitro were used to evaluate the effect of different dialysis patterns on circulatory mtDNA. Circulatory mtDNA was elevated in MHD patients comparing to that of health control. Regression analysis demonstrated that plasma mtDNA was positively associated with TNF-α and the product of serum calcium and phosphorus, while negatively associated with hemoglobin and serum albumin in MHD patients. MtDNA induced the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α in the THP-1 cells. Single high-flux hemodialysis (HF-HD) and on line hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) but not low-flux hemodialysis (LF-HD) could partially reduce plasma mtDNA in MHD patients. In vitro, both HD and hemofiltration (HF) could fractional remove mtDNA. Collectively, circulatory mtDNA is elevated and its level is closely correlated with chronic inflammation in MHD patients. HF-HD and HDF can partially reduce circulatory mtDNA in MHD patients.
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              Overview of regular dialysis treatment in Japan (as of 31 December 2011).

              A nationwide statistical survey of 4255 dialysis facilities was conducted at the end of 2011. Responses were submitted by 4213 facilities (99.0%). The number of new patients started on dialysis was 38,613 in 2011. Although the number of new patients decreased in 2009 and 2010, it increased in 2011. The number of patients who died each year has been increasing; it was 30,743 in 2011, which exceeded 30,000 for the first time. The number of patients undergoing dialysis has also been increasing every year; it was 304,856 at the end of 2011, which exceeded 300,000 for the first time. The number of dialysis patients per million at the end of 2011 was 2385.4. The crude death rate of dialysis patients in 2011 was 10.2%, which exceeded 10% for the first time in the last 20 years. The mean age of new dialysis patients was 67.84 years and the mean age of the entire dialysis patient population was 66.55 years. The most common primary cause of renal failure among new dialysis patients was diabetic nephropathy (44.3%). Diabetic nephropathy was also the most common primary disease among the entire dialysis patient population (36.7%), exceeding chronic glomerulonephritis (34.8%) which had been the highest until last year. The survey included questions related to the Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred on 11 March 2011. The results on items associated with the Great East Japan Earthquake were reported separately from this report. The mean uric acid levels of the male and female patients were 7.30 and 7.19 mg/dL, respectively. Certain drugs for hyperuricemia were prescribed for approximately 17% of patients. From the results of the facility survey, the number of patients who underwent peritoneal dialysis (PD) was 9642 and the number of patients who did not undergo PD despite having a peritoneal dialysis catheter was 369. A basic summary of the results on the survey items associated with PD is included in this report and the details were reported separately.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-318-05594-8
                978-3-318-05595-5
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2015
                September 2015
                08 September 2015
                : 40
                : Suppl 1
                : 12-16
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, and bDivision of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Showa University Fujigaoka Hospital, Yokohama, Japan
                Author notes
                *Tadao Akizawa, Namics Shinagawa 301, Takanawa 4-24-51, Minato, Tokyo 108-0074 (Japan), E-Mail akizawa@med.showa-u.ac.jp
                Article
                437405 Blood Purif 2015;40(suppl 1):12-16
                10.1159/000437405
                26344508
                45f8ea28-b844-42be-882d-cd0096f1df82
                © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 23, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Review

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Japan,Predilution mode,Postdilution mode,Online hemodiafiltration

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