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      Demonstration of the elusive concentration-gradient paramagnetic force.

      1 ,

      Journal of the American Chemical Society

      American Chemical Society (ACS)

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          Abstract

          Using classical electrochemistry, it is demonstrated that the concentration-gradient paramagnetic force, FnablaC, is a body force proportional to |B|2 acting parallel to the concentration gradient of electrogenerated radicals. FnablaC can balance gravity, holding volumes of solution wherein mass transfer continues to take place by diffusion. In contrast to usual levitation forces, FnablaC does not depend on field gradients and may be present even in homogeneous magnetic fields. Understanding the properties of FnablaC is relevant to magnetic confinement and levitation and is speculated even to propulsion with objects having permanent susceptibility gradients.

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          Author and article information

          Affiliations
          [1 ] Materials Division, NASA Glenn Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Rd. M.S. 49-1, Cleveland, Ohio 44135, USA. Nicholas.Leventis@nasa.gov
          Journal
          J. Am. Chem. Soc.
          Journal of the American Chemical Society
          American Chemical Society (ACS)
          0002-7863
          0002-7863
          Apr 13 2005
          : 127
          : 14
          10.1021/ja043169b
          15810811

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