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      Novel ultrasound-assisted mixed anionic–cationic surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction combined with HPLC for the determination of carbamate pesticides

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      Analytical Methods

      Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)

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          Most cited references 36

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          Ultrasound-assisted emulsification-microextraction of emergent contaminants and pesticides in environmental waters.

          The analytical use of ultrasound-generated emulsions has recently found a growing interest to improve efficiency in liquid-liquid extraction since they increase the speed of the mass transfer between the two immiscible phases implied. Thus, dispersed droplets can act as efficient liquid-liquid microextractors in the continuous phase, and later they can be readily separated by centrifugation. A novel method based on ultrasound-assisted emulsification-microextraction (USAEME) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been developed for the analysis of synthetic musk fragrances, phthalate esters and lindane in water samples. Extraction conditions were optimized using a multivariate approach. Compounds were extracted during 10 min in an acoustically emulsified media formed by 100 microL chloroform and 10 mL sample (enrichment factor=100). The method performance was studied in terms of accuracy (recovery=78-114%), linearity (R2> or =0.9990) and repeatability (RSD< or =14%). Limits of detection (LODs) were at the pg mL(-1) level for most of compounds, and at the sub-ng mL(-1) level for the most ubiquitous phthalate esters. USAEME is proposed as an efficient, fast, simple and non-expensive alternative to other extraction techniques such as SPE, SPME and LPME for the analysis of environmental waters including bottled, tap, river, municipal swimming pool, sewage and seaport water samples. Since no matrix effect has been found for any of the water types analyzed, quantification could be carried out by using conventional external calibration, thus allowing a higher throughput of the analysis in comparison with other microextraction techniques based on equilibrium such as solid-phase microextraction.
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            A novel dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet method for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous samples.

            A new dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet method (DLLME-SFO) was developed for the determination of five kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental water samples. In this method, no specific holder, such as the needle tip of microsyringe and the hollow fiber, is required for supporting the organic microdrop due to the using of organic solvent with low density and proper melting point. Furthermore, the extractant droplet can be collected easily by solidifying it in the lower temperature. 1-Dodecanol was chosen as extraction solvent in this work. A series of parameters that influence extraction were investigated systematically. Under optimal conditions, enrichment factors (EFs) for PAHs were in the range of 88-118. The limit of detections (LODs) for naphthalene, diphenyl, acenaphthene, anthracene and fluoranthene were 0.045, 0.86, 0.071, 1.1 and 0.66ngmL(-1), respectively. Good reproducibility and recovery of the method were also obtained. Compared with the traditional liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) methods, the proposed method obtained about 2 times higher enrichment factor than those in LPME. Moreover, the solidification of floating organic solvent facilitated the phase transfer. And most importantly, it avoided using high-density and toxic solvent in the traditional DLLME method. The proposed method was successfully applied to determinate PAHs in the environmental water samples. The simple and low-cost method provides an alternative method for the analysis of non-polar compounds in complex environmental water.
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              Recent developments in solid-phase microextraction.

              The main objective of this review is to describe the recent developments in solid-phase microextraction technology in food, environmental and bioanalytical chemistry applications. We briefly introduce the historical perspective on the very early work associated with the development of theoretical principles of SPME, but particular emphasis is placed on the more recent developments in the area of automation, high-throughput analysis, SPME method optimization approaches and construction of new SPME devices and their applications. The area of SPME automation for both GC and LC applications is particularly addressed in this review, as the most recent developments in this field have allowed the use of this technology for high-throughput applications. The development of new autosamplers with SPME compatibility and new-generation metal fibre assemblies has enhanced sample throughput for SPME-GC applications, the latter being attributed to the possibility of using the same fibre for several hundred extraction/injection cycles. For LC applications, high-throughput analysis (>1,000 samples per day) can be achieved for the first time with a multi-SPME autosampler which uses multi-well plate technology and allows SPME sample preparation of up to 96 samples in parallel. The development and evolution of new SPME devices such as needle trap, thin-film microextraction and cold-fibre headspace SPME have offered significant improvements in performance characteristics compared with the conventional fibre-SPME arrangement.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AMNECT
                Analytical Methods
                Anal. Methods
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                1759-9660
                1759-9679
                2012
                2012
                : 4
                : 7
                : 2101
                Article
                10.1039/c2ay25139f
                © 2012
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=c2ay25139f

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