Insufficient vertical mixing in the upper ocean during summer is a common problem of oceanic circulation and climate models. The turbulence associated with non-breaking waves is widely believed to effectively solve this problem. In many studies, non-breaking surface wave processes are attributed to the effects of Langmuir circulations (LCs). In the present work, the influences of LCs on the upper-ocean thermal structure are examined by using one-and three-dimensional ocean circulation, as well as climate, models. The results indicated that the effect of vertical mixing enhanced by LCs is limited to the upper ocean. The models evaluated, including those considering LC effects alone and the combined effects of LCs and wave breaking, failed to produce a reasonable summertime thermocline, resulting in a large cold bias in the subsurface layer. Therefore, while they can slightly reduce the biases of mixed layer depths and sea surface temperatures in models, LCs are insufficient to solve the problem of insufficient vertical mixing. Moreover, restriction of non-breaking surface wave-induced processes in LCs may be questionable.