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      Subjective well-being, general self-efficacy and coping with stress in former psychiatric patients preparing for the peer support role: an exploratory study

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          Abstract

          Background

          People who experienced a mental crisis are involved in providing care for others who face psychiatric hospitalization. The idea of peer workforce has been developed mostly in American and European behavioral health systems. Similar program is implemented to Polish mental health care. The purpose of the study was to find out if candidates for peer support workers with different levels of subjective well-being differed also in terms of general self-efficacy and in the ways of coping with stress.

          Methods

          As the problem has not been studied before exploratory study was conducted. The study covered a group of 72 subjects, 46 women and 26 men, aged 21–62 years (M = 41.43; SD = 10.37), former psychiatric patients, preparing for a peer worker role. We used the following questionnaires: Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being (PWB) Scales, in the Polish adaptation by Krok, the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) by Schwarzer and Jerusalem, in adaptation by Schwarzer, Jerusalem and Juczyński and Brief-COPE by Carver, in adaptation by Juczyński and Ogińska-Bulik.

          Results

          The results of cluster analysis pointed to the existence of two groups of individuals with significantly different levels of subjective well-being. Then MANOVA was used. It was determined that individuals with a higher level of well-being were characterized by a higher level of self-efficacy, a higher tendency to use positive reframing strategy and propensity towards active behavior when coping with stress, as well as by a lower propensity towards self-blaming and behavioral disengagement.

          Conclusions

          The study demonstrates that further empirical explorations are justified. The results also encourage a search for some more possible conditions of well-being. It would be advisable to train candidates for mental health peer workers by focusing on the strengthening of their subjective well being and developing active forms of coping with stress.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being.

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            On happiness and human potentials: a review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being.

             R Ryan,  E Deci (2000)
            Well-being is a complex construct that concerns optimal experience and functioning. Current research on well-being has been derived from two general perspectives: the hedonic approach, which focuses on happiness and defines well-being in terms of pleasure attainment and pain avoidance; and the eudaimonic approach, which focuses on meaning and self-realization and defines well-being in terms of the degree to which a person is fully functioning. These two views have given rise to different research foci and a body of knowledge that is in some areas divergent and in others complementary. New methodological developments concerning multilevel modeling and construct comparisons are also allowing researchers to formulate new questions for the field. This review considers research from both perspectives concerning the nature of well-being, its antecedents, and its stability across time and culture.
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              You want to measure coping but your protocol's too long: consider the brief COPE.

               V C Carver (1996)
              Studies of coping in applied settings often confront the need to minimize time demands on participants. The problem of participant response burden is exacerbated further by the fact that these studies typically are designed to test multiple hypotheses with the same sample, a strategy that entails the use of many time-consuming measures. Such research would benefit from a brief measure of coping assessing several responses known to be relevant to effective and ineffective coping. This article presents such a brief form of a previously published measure called the COPE inventory (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989), which has proven to be useful in health-related research. The Brief COPE omits two scales of the full COPE, reduces others to two items per scale, and adds one scale. Psychometric properties of the Brief COPE are reported, derived from a sample of adults participating in a study of the process of recovery after Hurricane Andrew.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                achudzicka-czupala@swps.edu.pl
                kzalewska@swps.edu.pl
                Journal
                Health Qual Life Outcomes
                Health Qual Life Outcomes
                Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
                BioMed Central (London )
                1477-7525
                10 April 2020
                10 April 2020
                2020
                : 18
                Affiliations
                [1 ]SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Faculty of Psychology in Katowice, Department of Social and Organizational Behavior Psychology, ul. Techników 9, 40-326 Katowice, Poland
                [2 ]SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Faculty of Psychology in Katowice, Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, ul. Techników 9, 40-326 Katowice, Poland
                Article
                1348
                10.1186/s12955-020-01348-6
                7146947
                32276662
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

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