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      Performance of the DSM-5-based criteria for Internet addiction: A factor analytical examination of three samples

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          Abstract

          Background and aims

          The diagnosis “Internet Gaming Disorder” (IGD) has been included in the fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. However, the nine criteria have not been sufficiently reviewed for their diagnostic value. This study focuses on a broader approach of Internet addiction (IA) including other Internet activities. It is not yet clear what the construct of IA is in terms of dimensionality and homogeneity and how the individual criteria contribute to explained variance.

          Methods

          Three separate exploratory factor analyses and multinomial logistic regression analyses were carried out based on information collected from a general population-based sample ( n = 196), a sample of people recruited at job centers ( n = 138), and a student sample ( n = 188).

          Results

          Both of the adult samples show a distinct single-factor solution. The analysis of the student sample suggests a two-factor solution. Only one item (criterion 8: escape from a negative mood) can be assigned to the second factor. Altogether, high endorsement rates of the eighth criterion in all three samples indicate low discriminatory power.

          Discussion and conclusions

          Overall, the analysis shows that the construct of IA is represented one dimensionally by the diagnostic criteria of the IGD. However, the student sample indicates evidence of age-specific performance of the criteria. The criterion “Escape from a negative mood” might be insufficient in discriminating between problematic and non-problematic Internet use. The findings deserve further examination, in particular with respect to the performance of the criteria in different age groups as well as in non-preselected samples.

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          Most cited references 23

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          The Composite International Diagnostic Interview. An epidemiologic Instrument suitable for use in conjunction with different diagnostic systems and in different cultures.

          The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), written at the request of the World Health Organization/US Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration Task Force on Psychiatric Assessment Instruments, combines questions from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule with questions designed to elicit Present State Examination items. It is fully structured to allow administration by lay interviewers and scoring of diagnoses by computer. A special Substance Abuse Module covers tobacco, alcohol, and other drug abuse in considerable detail, allowing the assessment of the quality and severity of dependence and its course. This article describes the design and development of the CIDI and the current field testing of a slightly reduced "core" version. The field test is being conducted in 19 centers around the world to assess the interviews' reliability and its acceptability to clinicians and the general populace in different cultures and to provide data on which to base revisions that may be found necessary. In addition, questions to assess International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, and the revised DSM-III diagnoses are being written. If all goes well, the CIDI will allow investigators reliably to assess mental disorders according to the most widely accepted nomenclatures in many different populations and cultures.
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            An international consensus for assessing internet gaming disorder using the new DSM-5 approach.

            For the first time, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) introduces non-substance addictions as psychiatric diagnoses. The aims of this paper are to (i) present the main controversies surrounding the decision to include internet gaming disorder, but not internet addiction more globally, as a non-substance addiction in the research appendix of the DSM-5, and (ii) discuss the meaning behind the DSM-5 criteria for internet gaming disorder. The paper also proposes a common method for assessing internet gaming disorder. Although the need for common diagnostic criteria is not debated, the existence of multiple instruments reflect the divergence of opinions in the field regarding how best to diagnose this condition. We convened international experts from European, North and South American, Asian and Australasian countries to discuss and achieve consensus about assessing internet gaming disorder as defined within DSM-5. We describe the intended meaning behind each of the nine DSM-5 criteria for internet gaming disorder and present a single item that best reflects each criterion, translated into the 10 main languages of countries in which research on this condition has been conducted. Using results from this cross-cultural collaboration, we outline important research directions for understanding and assessing internet gaming disorder. As this field moves forward, it is critical that researchers and clinicians around the world begin to apply a common methodology; this report is the first to achieve an international consensus related to the assessment of internet gaming disorder. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
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              Reliability and validity studies of the WHO--Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI): a critical review.

              This paper reviews reliability and validity studies of the WHO - Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The CIDI is a comprehensive and fully standardized diagnostic interview designed for assessing mental disorders according to the definitions of the Diagnostic Criteria for Research of ICD-10 and DSM-III-R. The instrument contains 276 symptom questions many of which are coupled with probe questions to evaluate symptom severity, as well as questions for assessing help-seeking behavior, psychosocial impairments, and other episode-related questions. Although primarily intended for use in epidemiological studies of mental disorders, it is also being used extensively for clinical and other research purposes. The review documents the wide spread use of the instrument and discusses several test-retest and interrater reliability studies of the CIDI. Both types of studies have confirmed good to excellent Kappa coefficients for most diagnostic sections. In international multicenter studies as well as several smaller center studies the CIDI was judged to be acceptable for most subjects and was found to be appropriate for use in different kinds of settings and countries. There is however still a need for reliability studies in general population samples, the area the CIDI was primary intended for. Only a few selected aspects of validity have been examined so far, mostly in smaller selected clinical samples. The need for further procedural validity studies of the CIDI with clinical instruments such as the SCAN as well as cognitive validation studies is emphasized. The latter should focus on specific aspects, such as the use of standardized questions in the elderly, cognitive probes to improve recall of episodes and their timing, as well as the role of order effects in the presentation of diagnostic sections.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Behav Addict
                J Behav Addict
                jba
                JBA
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-5871
                2063-5303
                23 May 2019
                June 2019
                : 8
                : 2
                : 288-294
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Luebeck , Luebeck, Germany
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Bettina Besser; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, D-23538 Luebeck, Germany; Phone: +49 451 500 98755; Fax: +49 451 500 98754; E-mail: bettina.besser@ 123456uksh.de
                Article
                10.1556/2006.8.2019.19
                7044557
                31120319
                © 2019 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 26, Pages: 7
                Product
                Funding
                Funding sources: This work was supported by German Federal States and German Federal Ministry of Health.
                Categories
                Full-Length Report

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