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      Success Providing Postpartum Intrauterine Devices in Private-Sector Health Care Facilities in Nigeria: Factors Associated With Uptake

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          Abstract

          41% of women delivering in the social franchise private facilities chose the postpartum IUD. Factors associated with acceptance included lower education, higher parity, and being single. Scale-up of postpartum IUD services in both public and private facilities has the potential to significantly increase use of long-acting reversible contraception in Nigeria.

          Abstract

          41% of women delivering in the social franchise private facilities chose the postpartum IUD. Factors associated with acceptance included lower education, higher parity, and being single. Scale-up of postpartum IUD services in both public and private facilities has the potential to significantly increase use of long-acting reversible contraception in Nigeria.

          ABSTRACT

          Background:

          Use of modern contraceptive methods in Nigeria remained at 10% between 2008 and 2013 despite substantive investments in family planning services. Many women in their first postpartum year, in particular, have an unmet need for family planning. We evaluated use of postpartum intrauterine device (IUD) insertion and determined factors associated with its uptake in Nigeria.

          Methods:

          Data were collected between May 2014 and February 2015 from 11 private health care facilities in 6 southern Nigerian states. Women attending antenatal care in participating facilities were counseled on all available contraceptive methods including the postpartum IUD. Data were abstracted from participating facility records and evaluated using a cross-sectional analysis. Categorical variables were calculated as proportions while continuous variables were calculated as medians with the associated interquartile range (IQR). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with uptake of the postpartum IUD while controlling for potential confounding factors, including age, educational attainment, marital status, parity, number of living children, and previous use of contraception.

          Results:

          During the study period, 728 women delivered in the 11 facilities. The median age was 28 years, and most women were educated (73% had completed at least the secondary level). The majority (96%) of the women reported they were married, and the median number of living children was 3 (IQR, 2–4). Uptake of the postpartum IUD was 41% (n = 300), with 8% (n = 25) of the acceptors experiencing expulsion of the IUD within 6 weeks post-insertion. After controlling for potential confounding factors, several characteristics were associated with greater likelihood of choosing the postpartum IUD, including lower education, having a higher number of living children, and being single. Women who had used contraceptives previously were less likely to choose the postpartum IUD than women who had not previously used contraception (adjusted odds ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.55 to 0.84).

          Conclusion:

          A high percentage (41%) of women delivering in private health care facilities in southern Nigeria accepted immediate postpartum IUD insertion. Scale-up of postpartum IUD services is a promising approach to increasing uptake of long-acting reversible contraceptives among women in Nigeria.

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          Most cited references 18

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          ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 121: Long-acting reversible contraception: Implants and intrauterine devices.

            (2011)
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            Intrauterine device insertion during the postpartum period: a systematic review.

            Insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD) at different times or by different routes during the postpartum period may increase the risk of complications. We searched Medline, Lilacs and Cochrane Collaboration databases for articles in any language, between database inception until December 2008, which compared outcomes of postpartum IUD insertion time intervals. Search terms included postpartum, puerperium, postcesarean delivery, cesarean section, IUD(s), IUCD(s), intrauterine device(s) and insertion. From 297 articles, we identified 15 for inclusion in this review: all studies examined the outcomes from copper IUD insertions within the postpartum time period compared to other time intervals or compared routes (vaginal or via hysterotomy) of postpartum insertion. No studies of levonorgestrel IUDs were identified. Immediate IUD insertion (within 10 min of placental delivery) was safe when compared with later postpartum time periods and interval insertion. Immediate postpartum IUD insertion demonstrated lower expulsion rates when compared with delayed postpartum insertion but with higher rates than interval insertion. Immediate insertion following cesarean delivery demonstrated lower expulsion rates than immediate insertion following vaginal delivery. Poor to fair quality evidence from 15 articles demonstrated no increase in risk of complications among women who had an IUD inserted during the postpartum period; however, some increase in expulsion rates occurred with delayed postpartum insertion when compared to immediate insertion and with immediate insertion when compared to interval insertion. Postplacental placements during cesarean delivery are associated with lower expulsion rates than postplacental vaginal insertions, without increasing rates of postoperative complications.
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              The risk of pregnancy after tubal sterilization: findings from the U.S. Collaborative Review of Sterilization.

              Our purpose was to determine the risk of pregnancy after tubal sterilization for common methods of tubal occlusion. A multicenter, prospective cohort study was conducted in U.S. medical centers. A total of 10,685 women who underwent tubal sterilization was followed up for 8 to 14 years. The risk of pregnancy was assessed by cumulative life-table probabilities and proportional hazards models. A total of 143 sterilization failures was identified. Cumulative 10-year probabilities of pregnancy were highest after clip sterilization (36.5/1000 procedures) and lowest after unipolar coagulation (7.5/1000) and postpartum partial salpingectomy (7.5/1000). The cumulative risk of pregnancy was highest among women sterilized at a young age with bipolar coagulation (54.3/1000) and clip application (52.1/1000). Although tubal sterilization is highly effective, the risk of sterilization failure is higher than generally reported. The risk persists for years after the procedure and varies by method of tubal occlusion and age.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Glob Health Sci Pract
                Glob Health Sci Pract
                ghsp
                ghsp
                Global Health: Science and Practice
                Global Health: Science and Practice
                2169-575X
                20 June 2016
                20 June 2016
                : 4
                : 2
                : 276-283
                Affiliations
                [a ]Marie Stopes International Organization , Abuja, Nigeria
                [b ]United Nations Population Fund , Accra, Ghana
                Author notes
                Article
                GHSP-D-16-00072
                10.9745/GHSP-D-16-00072
                4982251
                27353620
                © Eluwa et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly cited. To view a copy of the license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/. When linking to this article, please use the following permanent link: http://dx.doi.org/10.9745/GHSP-D-16-00072.

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