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      • Record: found
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      Mitochondria of Retinal Müller (Glial) Cells: The Effects of Aging and of Application of Free Radical Scavengers

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          Abstract

          Age-related changes of mitochondria were studied in Müller (retinal glial) cells from guinea pigs fed with or without externally applied Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761, an established radical scavenger. When Müller cell mitochondria from aged animals were compared with those from young adults, they displayed (1) a diminished number of well-defined cristae at the ultrastructural level, (2) a reduced membrane potential, as revealed by fluorimetry using the voltage-sensitive dye tetramethyl rhodamine methylester, and (3) a slightly reduced index of vitality assayed by tetrazolium salt colorimetry. Müller cell mitochondria were also studied in aged guinea pigs which had been fed daily by EGb 761 during the last 2 months before they were sacrificed. Such mitochondria displayed (1) many well-defined cristae at the ultrastructural level, and, compared with mitochondria from untreated aged animals, (2) a significantly enhanced membrane potential and (3) a significantly enhanced index of vitality. No age- or drug-related changes were observed in the mitochondrial content of GABA transaminase, as revealed by immunocytochemistry/densitometry. These results suggest that many but not all structural and functional parameters of aging Müller cell mitochondria are impaired by accumulating oxidative damage, and that externally applied radical scavengers may protect the organelles from the damaging actions of free radicals. As it has been shown earlier that EGb 761 treatment enhances the intrinsic glutathione content of aged guinea pig Müller cells, the protective radical-scavenging effect of the drug may be mediated both directly and indirectly.

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          A Ginkgo Biloba Extract (EGb 761) Prevents Mitochondrial Aging by Protecting Against Oxidative Stress

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            An integrated theory of aging as the result of mitochondrial-DNA mutation in differentiated cells

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              The influences of age, retinal topography, and gender on retinal degeneration in the Fischer 344 rat.

              The Fischer 344 (F344) rat is presently the animal of choice for age-related research. The existence of an age-related retinal degeneration was reported previously in the males of this strain, but a gender comparison has not been performed. In this study, histological and morphometric measurements of the retina related to age, retinal topography, and gender were made on 3- to 24-month-old animals. The thicknesses of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) and the photoreceptor layer (PRL) were measured from sagittal sections at six loci. Retinas of both sexes showed steady decline with age in the thicknesses of the ONL and PRL at all locations. An important finding was the presence, after 12 months of age, of a drastically accelerated rate of peripheral retinal degeneration seen only in male subjects. Females showed a less dramatic rate of peripheral degeneration which did not begin until after 18 months of age. In addition, two other forms of retinal degeneration were found--cystoid degeneration was found earlier and more frequently in the male, while a paving-stone type of degeneration was found in both sexes. These two types of lesions were preferentially, but not exclusively found in the peripheral retina. In conclusion, the F344 rat offers a convenient model to study a pattern of retinal degeneration affected by the combination of gender, regional and age-related factors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ORE
                Ophthalmic Res
                10.1159/issn.0030-3747
                Ophthalmic Research
                S. Karger AG
                0030-3747
                1423-0259
                2000
                October 2000
                07 September 2000
                : 32
                : 5
                : 229-236
                Affiliations
                Paul Flechsig Institute for Brain Research, University of Leipzig, Germany
                Article
                55618 Ophthalmic Res 2000;32:229–236
                10.1159/000055618
                10971185
                46296caa-b86b-47d0-ae85-0b83b52e4c25
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 47, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Vision sciences,Ophthalmology & Optometry,Pathology
                Retina,Aging,Oxidation,Free radical scavengers,Glia
                Vision sciences, Ophthalmology & Optometry, Pathology
                Retina, Aging, Oxidation, Free radical scavengers, Glia

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