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      Association between Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and Risk of Breast Cancer: a Case-Control Study

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          Breast cancer (BrCa) is the most common cancer among women worldwide and is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women, in developed countries. This cancer is among the top five most common cancers in Iran. Studies have shown that dietary components are implicated in the etiology of BrCa. The existence of molecular connections between inflammation and BrCa has been demonstrated via different bimolecular events.


          We examined the ability of the dietary inflammatory index (DIITM) to predict the risk of BrCa. This included 145 cases and 148 controls, who attended the specialized centers. DII scores were computed based on dietary intake assessed using a 168-item FFQ. Logistic regression models were used to estimate multivariable ORs.


          Modeling DII as a continuous variable in relation to risk of BrCa showed a positive association after adjustment for age and energy (OR=1.76; 95% CI=1.43-2.18); and were nearly identical in the multivariable analyses (OR=1.80; 95% CI=1.42-2.28). DII as tertiles, and adjusting for age and energy, subjects in tertile 3 had an OR of 6.94 (95% CI= 3.26-14.79; P-trend ≤0.0001) in comparison to subjects in tertile 1. After multivariable adjustment, results were essentially identical as in the model adjusting for age and energy (OR tertile 3vs1=7.24; 95% CI=3.14-16.68; P-trend ≤0.001). Sub group analyses revealed similar positive associations with HER 2 receptor +ve, progesterone receptor +ve, estrogen receptor +ve and lymph node invasive cases.


          Subjects who consumed a more pro-inflammatory diet were at increased risk of BrCa compared to those who consumed a more anti-inflammatory diet.

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          Global cancer statistics, 2012.

          Cancer constitutes an enormous burden on society in more and less economically developed countries alike. The occurrence of cancer is increasing because of the growth and aging of the population, as well as an increasing prevalence of established risk factors such as smoking, overweight, physical inactivity, and changing reproductive patterns associated with urbanization and economic development. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, about 14.1 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million deaths occurred in 2012 worldwide. Over the years, the burden has shifted to less developed countries, which currently account for about 57% of cases and 65% of cancer deaths worldwide. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among males in both more and less developed countries, and has surpassed breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death among females in more developed countries; breast cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death among females in less developed countries. Other leading causes of cancer death in more developed countries include colorectal cancer among males and females and prostate cancer among males. In less developed countries, liver and stomach cancer among males and cervical cancer among females are also leading causes of cancer death. Although incidence rates for all cancers combined are nearly twice as high in more developed than in less developed countries in both males and females, mortality rates are only 8% to 15% higher in more developed countries. This disparity reflects regional differences in the mix of cancers, which is affected by risk factors and detection practices, and/or the availability of treatment. Risk factors associated with the leading causes of cancer death include tobacco use (lung, colorectal, stomach, and liver cancer), overweight/obesity and physical inactivity (breast and colorectal cancer), and infection (liver, stomach, and cervical cancer). A substantial portion of cancer cases and deaths could be prevented by broadly applying effective prevention measures, such as tobacco control, vaccination, and the use of early detection tests. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
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            Inflammation and cancer.

            Recent data have expanded the concept that inflammation is a critical component of tumour progression. Many cancers arise from sites of infection, chronic irritation and inflammation. It is now becoming clear that the tumour microenvironment, which is largely orchestrated by inflammatory cells, is an indispensable participant in the neoplastic process, fostering proliferation, survival and migration. In addition, tumour cells have co-opted some of the signalling molecules of the innate immune system, such as selectins, chemokines and their receptors for invasion, migration and metastasis. These insights are fostering new anti-inflammatory therapeutic approaches to cancer development.
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              Effect of a mediterranean-style diet on endothelial dysfunction and markers of vascular inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial.

              The metabolic syndrome has been identified as a target for dietary therapies to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease; however, the role of diet in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome is poorly understood. To assess the effect of a Mediterranean-style diet on endothelial function and vascular inflammatory markers in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Randomized, single-blind trial conducted from June 2001 to January 2004 at a university hospital in Italy among 180 patients (99 men and 81 women) with the metabolic syndrome, as defined by the Adult Treatment Panel III. Patients in the intervention group (n = 90) were instructed to follow a Mediterranean-style diet and received detailed advice about how to increase daily consumption of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and olive oil; patients in the control group (n = 90) followed a prudent diet (carbohydrates, 50%-60%; proteins, 15%-20%; total fat, <30%). Nutrient intake; endothelial function score as a measure of blood pressure and platelet aggregation response to l-arginine; lipid and glucose parameters; insulin sensitivity; and circulating levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukins 6 (IL-6), 7 (IL-7), and 18 (IL-18). After 2 years, patients following the Mediterranean-style diet consumed more foods rich in monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and fiber and had a lower ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids. Total fruit, vegetable, and nuts intake (274 g/d), whole grain intake (103 g/d), and olive oil consumption (8 g/d) were also significantly higher in the intervention group (P<.001). The level of physical activity increased in both groups by approximately 60%, without difference between groups (P =.22). Mean (SD) body weight decreased more in patients in the intervention group (-4.0 [1.1] kg) than in those in the control group (-1.2 [0.6] kg) (P<.001). Compared with patients consuming the control diet, patients consuming the intervention diet had significantly reduced serum concentrations of hs-CRP (P =.01), IL-6 (P =.04), IL-7 (P = 0.4), and IL-18 (P = 0.3), as well as decreased insulin resistance (P<.001). Endothelial function score improved in the intervention group (mean [SD] change, +1.9 [0.6]; P<.001) but remained stable in the control group (+0.2 [0.2]; P =.33). At 2 years of follow-up, 40 patients in the intervention group still had features of the metabolic syndrome, compared with 78 patients in the control group (P<.001). A Mediterranean-style diet might be effective in reducing the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its associated cardiovascular risk.

                Author and article information

                Asian Pac J Cancer Prev
                Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev
                Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention : APJCP
                West Asia Organization for Cancer Prevention (Iran )
                : 19
                : 5
                : 1215-1221
                [1 ] Department of Nutritional Sciences, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology
                [2 ] Cancer Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [3 ] Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Arnold School of Public Health, Columbia, USA
                [4 ] Cancer Prevention and Control Program and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, Columbia, USA
                [5 ] Connecting Health Innovations LLC, University of South Carolina, Columbia, USA
                Author notes
                [* ] For Correspondence: hdavoodi1345@
                Copyright: © Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

                Research Article


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