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      Freeze/thawed polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels: Present, past and future

      , , , , ,
      European Polymer Journal
      Elsevier BV

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          Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene.

          We measured the elastic properties and intrinsic breaking strength of free-standing monolayer graphene membranes by nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope. The force-displacement behavior is interpreted within a framework of nonlinear elastic stress-strain response, and yields second- and third-order elastic stiffnesses of 340 newtons per meter (N m(-1)) and -690 Nm(-1), respectively. The breaking strength is 42 N m(-1) and represents the intrinsic strength of a defect-free sheet. These quantities correspond to a Young's modulus of E = 1.0 terapascals, third-order elastic stiffness of D = -2.0 terapascals, and intrinsic strength of sigma(int) = 130 gigapascals for bulk graphite. These experiments establish graphene as the strongest material ever measured, and show that atomically perfect nanoscale materials can be mechanically tested to deformations well beyond the linear regime.
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            Hydrogel nanoparticles in drug delivery.

            Hydrogel nanoparticles have gained considerable attention in recent years as one of the most promising nanoparticulate drug delivery systems owing to their unique potentials via combining the characteristics of a hydrogel system (e.g., hydrophilicity and extremely high water content) with a nanoparticle (e.g., very small size). Several polymeric hydrogel nanoparticulate systems have been prepared and characterized in recent years, based on both natural and synthetic polymers, each with its own advantages and drawbacks. Among the natural polymers, chitosan and alginate have been studied extensively for preparation of hydrogel nanoparticles and from synthetic group, hydrogel nanoparticles based on poly (vinyl alcohol), poly (ethylene oxide), poly (ethyleneimine), poly (vinyl pyrrolidone), and poly-N-isopropylacrylamide have been reported with different characteristics and features with respect to drug delivery. Regardless of the type of polymer used, the release mechanism of the loaded agent from hydrogel nanoparticles is complex, while resulting from three main vectors, i.e., drug diffusion, hydrogel matrix swelling, and chemical reactivity of the drug/matrix. Several crosslinking methods have been used in the way to form the hydrogel matix structures, which can be classified in two major groups of chemically- and physically-induced crosslinking.
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              Wound healing dressings and drug delivery systems: a review.

              The variety of wound types has resulted in a wide range of wound dressings with new products frequently introduced to target different aspects of the wound healing process. The ideal dressing should achieve rapid healing at reasonable cost with minimal inconvenience to the patient. This article offers a review of the common wound management dressings and emerging technologies for achieving improved wound healing. It also reviews many of the dressings and novel polymers used for the delivery of drugs to acute, chronic and other types of wound. These include hydrocolloids, alginates, hydrogels, polyurethane, collagen, chitosan, pectin and hyaluronic acid. There is also a brief section on the use of biological polymers as tissue engineered scaffolds and skin grafts. Pharmacological agents such as antibiotics, vitamins, minerals, growth factors and other wound healing accelerators that take active part in the healing process are discussed. Direct delivery of these agents to the wound site is desirable, particularly when systemic delivery could cause organ damage due to toxicological concerns associated with the preferred agents. This review concerns the requirement for formulations with improved properties for effective and accurate delivery of the required therapeutic agents. General formulation approaches towards achieving optimum physical properties and controlled delivery characteristics for an active wound healing dosage form are also considered briefly.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                European Polymer Journal
                European Polymer Journal
                Elsevier BV
                00143057
                February 2022
                February 2022
                : 164
                : 110974
                Article
                10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2021.110974
                46389a15-220d-4303-ab88-50a057f1ab04
                © 2022

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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