15 June 2020
Background: Cyst compression of renal tubules plays a role in the progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and may induce expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1). Whether urinary KIM-1 indexed for creatinine (uKIM-1/Cr) is a prognostic marker of disease progression in ADPKD is unknown.In this secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study, we sought to determine whether patients with high as opposed to low uKIM-1/CR at baseline had greater rates of eGFR loss and height-adjusted total kidney volume (HtTKV) increase. Methods: Baseline uKIM-1/Cr values were obtained from 754 participants in Halt Progression of Polycystic Kidney Disease (HALT-PKD) studies A (early ADPKD) and B (late ADPKD). The predictor was uKIM-1/Cr, which was dichotomized by a median value of 0.2417 pg/g, and the primary outcomes were measured longitudinally over time. Mixed-effects linear models were used in the analysis to calculate the annual slope of change in eGFR and HtTKV. Results: Patients with high uKIM-1/Cr (above the median) had an annual decline in eGFR that was 0.47 mL/min greater than that in those with low uKIM-1/Cr ( p = 0.0015) after adjustment for all considered covariates. This association was seen in study B patients alone (0.45 mL/min; p = 0.009), but not in study A patients alone (0.42 mL/min; p = 0.06). High baseline uKIM-1/Cr was associated with higher HtTKV in the baseline cross-sectional analysis compared to low uKIM-1/Cr ( p = 0.02), but there was no difference between the groups in the mixed-effects model annual slopes. Conclusion: Elevated baseline uKIM-1/Cr is associated with a greater decline in eGFR over time. Further research is needed to determine whether uKIM-1/Cr improves risk stratification in patients with ADPKD.