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      Enhanced delivery of hydrophilic peptides in vitro by transdermal microneedle pretreatment

      brief-report

      , , *

      Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B

      Elsevier

      Microneedle, Peptide, Transdermal, Convective solvent flow

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          Abstract

          The aims of this study were to investigate the utility of solid microneedle arrays (150 µm in length) in enhancing transdermal delivery of peptides and to examine the relationship between peptide permeation rates and D 2O flux. Four model peptides were used (Gly–Gln–Pro–Arg [tetrapeptide-3, 456.6 Da], Val–Gly–Val–Ala–Pro–Gly [hexapeptide, 498.6 Da], AC–Glu–Glu–Met–Gln–Arg–Arg–NH 2 [acetyl hexapeptide-3, 889 Da] and Cys–Tyr–Ile–Gln–Asn–Cys–Pro–Leu–Gly–NH 2 [oxytocin, 1007.2 Da]). The influence of microneedle pretreatment on skin permeation was evaluated using porcine ear skin with Franze diffusion cell. Peptide permeation across the skin was significantly enhanced by microneedle pretreatment, and permeation rates were dependent on peptide molecular weights. A positive correlation between D 2O flux and acetyl hexapeptide-3 clearances suggests that convective solvent flow contributes to the enhanced transdermal peptide delivery. It is concluded that solid microneedle arrays are effective devices to enhance skin delivery of peptides.

          Graphical abstract

          Solid microneedle significantly enhanced the delivery of peptides with low molecular weight through skin and provided a sustained release of the peptides during 24 h. Permeation rate of peptides decreased with the molecular weight increased.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Microneedles for drug and vaccine delivery.

          Microneedles were first conceptualized for drug delivery many decades ago, but only became the subject of significant research starting in the mid-1990's when microfabrication technology enabled their manufacture as (i) solid microneedles for skin pretreatment to increase skin permeability, (ii) microneedles coated with drug that dissolves off in the skin, (iii) polymer microneedles that encapsulate drug and fully dissolve in the skin and (iv) hollow microneedles for drug infusion into the skin. As shown in more than 350 papers now published in the field, microneedles have been used to deliver a broad range of different low molecular weight drugs, biotherapeutics and vaccines, including published human studies with a number of small-molecule and protein drugs and vaccines. Influenza vaccination using a hollow microneedle is in widespread clinical use and a number of solid microneedle products are sold for cosmetic purposes. In addition to applications in the skin, microneedles have also been adapted for delivery of bioactives into the eye and into cells. Successful application of microneedles depends on device function that facilitates microneedle insertion and possible infusion into skin, skin recovery after microneedle removal, and drug stability during manufacturing, storage and delivery, and on patient outcomes, including lack of pain, skin irritation and skin infection, in addition to drug efficacy and safety. Building off a strong technology base and multiple demonstrations of successful drug delivery, microneedles are poised to advance further into clinical practice to enable better pharmaceutical therapies, vaccination and other applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            Microneedle technologies for (trans)dermal drug and vaccine delivery.

            Microneedles have been used for the dermal and transdermal delivery of a broad range of drugs, such as small molecular weight drugs, oligonucleotides, DNA, peptides, proteins and inactivated viruses. However, until now there are no microneedle-based (trans)dermal drug delivery systems on the market. In the past decade various types of microneedles have been developed by a number of production processes. Numerous geometries of microneedles have been designed from various materials. These microneedles have been used for different approaches of microneedle-based (trans)dermal drug delivery. Following a brief introduction about dermal and transdermal drug delivery, this review describes different production methods for solid and hollow microneedles as well as conditions that influence skin penetration. Besides, the four microneedle-based (trans)dermal drug delivery approaches are discussed: "poke and flow", "poke and patch", "poke and release", and "coat and poke". A separate section of this review is devoted to the use of microneedles for the delivery of therapeutic proteins and vaccines. Finally, we give our view on research and development that is needed to render microneedle-based (trans)dermal drug delivery technologies clinically useful in the near future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Dissolving polymer microneedle patches for rapid and efficient transdermal delivery of insulin to diabetic rats.

              This study presents a dissolving microneedle patch, composed of starch and gelatin, for the rapid and efficient transdermal delivery of insulin. The microneedles completely dissolve after insertion into the skin for 5 min, quickly releasing their encapsulated payload into the skin. A histological examination shows that the microneedles have sufficient mechanical strength to be inserted in vitro into porcine skin to a depth of approximately 200 μm and in vivo into rat skin to 200-250 μm depth. This penetration depth does not induce notable skin irritation or pain sensation. To evaluate the feasibility of using these dissolving microneedles for diabetes treatment insulin-loaded microneedles were administered to diabetic rats using a homemade applicator. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic results show a similar hypoglycemic effect in rats receiving insulin-loaded microneedles and a subcutaneous injection of insulin. The relative pharmacological availability and relative bioavailability of insulin were both approximately 92%, demonstrating that insulin retains its pharmacological activity after encapsulation and release from the microneedles. Storage stability analysis confirms that more than 90% of the insulin remained in the microneedles even after storage at 25 or 37°C for 1 month. These results confirm that the proposed starch/gelatin microneedles enable stable encapsulation of bioactive molecules and have great potential for transdermal delivery of protein drugs in a relatively painless, rapid, and convenient manner. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Acta Pharm Sin B
                Acta Pharm Sin B
                Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
                Elsevier
                2211-3835
                2211-3843
                24 January 2014
                February 2014
                24 January 2014
                : 4
                : 1
                : 100-104
                Affiliations
                Lab of Organic Optoelectronic Functional Materials and Molecular Engineering, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Tel./fax: +86 10 82543581. yhgao@ 123456mail.ipc.ac.cn
                Article
                S2211-3835(13)00116-0
                10.1016/j.apsb.2013.12.011
                4590292
                © 2014 Chinese Pharmaceutical Association and Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

                Categories
                Short Communication

                microneedle, peptide, transdermal, convective solvent flow

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