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      New records of Celaenorrhinus pyrrha de Nicéville, 1889 and C. munda (Moore, 1884) from China (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae)

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          Celaenorrhinus pyrrha de Nicéville, 1889, a rare species of Hesperiidae previously known to be distributed from northeastern India to Indochina, is reported from southwestern Yunnan and southwestern Chongqing, China. A 658 bp COI gene sequence of this species is published for the first time. Although Chongqing is obviously isolated from the main distribution range, morphological characters of the specimens from this locality do not indicate a subspecies differentiation. Another rare taxon, C. munda munda (Moore, 1884), is also recorded from China for the first time based upon a male specimen from Cuona County in the Tibet Autonomous Region. This is the second specimen of C. munda from China, over 100 years after the holotype of C. munda joka Evans, 1949. The genitalia of both species are illustrated and described. Some taxonomic notes and a distribution map are provided as well.

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          Most cited references 19

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          MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 7.0 for Bigger Datasets.

          We present the latest version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software, which contains many sophisticated methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. In this major upgrade, Mega has been optimized for use on 64-bit computing systems for analyzing larger datasets. Researchers can now explore and analyze tens of thousands of sequences in Mega The new version also provides an advanced wizard for building timetrees and includes a new functionality to automatically predict gene duplication events in gene family trees. The 64-bit Mega is made available in two interfaces: graphical and command line. The graphical user interface (GUI) is a native Microsoft Windows application that can also be used on Mac OS X. The command line Mega is available as native applications for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. They are intended for use in high-throughput and scripted analysis. Both versions are available from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            DNA barcodes distinguish species of tropical Lepidoptera.

            Although central to much biological research, the identification of species is often difficult. The use of DNA barcodes, short DNA sequences from a standardized region of the genome, has recently been proposed as a tool to facilitate species identification and discovery. However, the effectiveness of DNA barcoding for identifying specimens in species-rich tropical biotas is unknown. Here we show that cytochrome c oxidase I DNA barcodes effectively discriminate among species in three Lepidoptera families from Area de Conservación Guanacaste in northwestern Costa Rica. We found that 97.9% of the 521 species recognized by prior taxonomic work possess distinctive cytochrome c oxidase I barcodes and that the few instances of interspecific sequence overlap involve very similar species. We also found two or more barcode clusters within each of 13 supposedly single species. Covariation between these clusters and morphological and/or ecological traits indicates overlooked species complexes. If these results are general, DNA barcoding will significantly aid species identification and discovery in tropical settings.
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              The CLUSTAL_X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools.

               J. Thompson (1997)
              CLUSTAL X is a new windows interface for the widely-used progressive multiple sequence alignment program CLUSTAL W. The new system is easy to use, providing an integrated system for performing multiple sequence and profile alignments and analysing the results. CLUSTAL X displays the sequence alignment in a window on the screen. A versatile sequence colouring scheme allows the user to highlight conserved features in the alignment. Pull-down menus provide all the options required for traditional multiple sequence and profile alignment. New features include: the ability to cut-and-paste sequences to change the order of the alignment, selection of a subset of the sequences to be realigned, and selection of a sub-range of the alignment to be realigned and inserted back into the original alignment. Alignment quality analysis can be performed and low-scoring segments or exceptional residues can be highlighted. Quality analysis and realignment of selected residue ranges provide the user with a powerful tool to improve and refine difficult alignments and to trap errors in input sequences. CLUSTAL X has been compiled on SUN Solaris, IRIX5.3 on Silicon Graphics, Digital UNIX on DECstations, Microsoft Windows (32 bit) for PCs, Linux ELF for x86 PCs, and Macintosh PowerMac.

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                05 November 2020
                : 985
                : 61-70
                [1 ] School of Food and Bioengineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, No. 5 Dongfeng Road, Zhengzhou, Henan, 450002, China Zhengzhou University of Light Industry Zhengzhou China
                [2 ] Sritana Condominium 2, 96/173, Huay Kaew Rd., T. Suthep, A. Muang, Chiang Mai, 50200, Thailand Sritana Condominium Chiang Mai Thailand
                [3 ] Forest Resource Service Center of Simian Mountain, Chongqing, 402296, China Forest Resource Service Center of Simian Mountain Chongqing China
                [4 ] Technology Center, China Tobacco Henan Industrial Co., Ltd. No. 8 The Third Street of Zhengzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone, Zhengzhou, Henan, 450000, China China Tobacco Henan Industrial Co. Zhengzhou China
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Gou-Xi Xue ( xueguoxi95227@ 123456163.com ), Hai-Ying Tian ( haiyingflying@ 123456163.com )

                Academic editor: T. Simonsen

                Gou-Xi Xue, Yutaka Inayoshi, Meng Li, Fu-Ming Zhang, Da-Kun Lai, Hai-Ying Tian

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China 501100001809 http://doi.org/10.13039/501100001809
                Research Article
                Faunistics & Distribution

                Animal science & Zoology

                subspecies, coi, male genitalia, female genitalia, fauna, distribution


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