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      Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment Augments the Efficacy of a Losartan Regime in an Experimental Nephrotic Syndrome Model

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Proteinuria is associated with oxidant stress and inflammation. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. The aim of the study was to investigate the benefits of HBO treatment on an experimental nephrotic syndrome model. Methods: 50 male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 255 ± 39 g were housed. Forty rats were injected 6 mg/kg adriamycin into tail veins under anesthesia to induce nephrosis, while 10 rats were spared as sham control. After the stabilization of proteinuria at the sixth week, the rats were treated for 6 weeks by losartan (n = 10, 30 mg/kg/day), HBO (n = 10, 2.8 atmosphere absolute, 90 min/day), HBO + losartan (n = 10) and vehicle (n = 10). Protein carbonyl (PCO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were analyzed from tissue specimens. Biochemical markers were studied from venous samples and 24-hour urine was collected for proteinuria. The surviving animals at 12 weeks (vehicle group (n = 6), HBO (n = 6), losartan (n = 8), HBO + losartan (n = 10) were sacrificed. Glomerular sclerosis, tubulointerstitial and blood vessel changes were determined by semiquantitative scoring. Results: The PCO levels increased (p < 0.001), and the GPx and SOD levels decreased (p < 0.001 for both) in the nephrotic rats. In losartan and HBO groups GPx levels increased (p = 0.001, p = 0.002 respectively), but PCO and SOD levels did not change. The combination of HBO with losartan significantly increased the GPx and SOD levels (p = 0.001 for both) and decreased PCO levels (p = 0.005). HBO but not losartan significantly reduced proteinuria (p < 0.001). The combination of HBO and losartan reduced proteinuria better than the single losartan regime (p < 0.001). The effect of the combination was also noticed on the histological examination of the kidneys. The activities, appetites, weight gains, and improvement of edema were better in the HBO combined with losartan regime. Conclusions: These results indicate that the addition of HBO therapy to a conventional regime, angiotensin receptor blockers, has significant benefits in the management of proteinuria. Future clinical studies are needed to elucidate the role of HBO and other antioxidant strategies in the treatment of proteinuria.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Oxygen, oxidative stress, hypoxia, and heart failure

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            Natural hypometabolism during hibernation and daily torpor in mammals.

            Daily torpor and hibernation are the most powerful measures of endotherms to reduce their energy expenditure. During entrance into these torpid states metabolic rate is suppressed to a fraction of euthermic metabolism, paralleled by reductions in ventilation and heart rate. Body temperature gradually decreases towards the level of ambient temperature. In deep torpor body temperature as well as metabolic rate are controlled at a hypothermic and hypometabolic level. Torpid states are terminated by an arousal where metabolic rate spontaneously returns to normal levels again and euthermic body temperature is established by a burst of heat production. In recent years some of the cellular mechanisms which contribute to hypometabolism have been disclosed. Transcription, translation, as well as protein synthesis are largely suppressed. Cell proliferation in highly proliferating epithelia like the intestine is suspended. ATP production from glucose is reduced and lipids serve as the major substrate for remaining energy requirements. All these changes are rapidly reverted to normometabolism during arousal. Hibernation and daily torpor are found in small mammals inhabiting temperate as well as tropical climates. It indicates that this behaviour is not primarily aimed for cold defense, instead points to a general role of hypometabolism, as a measure to cope with a timely limited or seasonal bottleneck of energy supply.
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              Combination therapy with ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers to halt progression of chronic renal disease: pathophysiology and indications.

              It is no a secret that we are confronted by an alarmingly increasing number of patients with progressive renal disease. There is ample evidence for the notion that angiotensin II (Ang II) is a major culprit in progression. The vasopeptide Ang II turned out to have also multiple nonhemodynamic pathophysiologic actions on the kidney, including proinflammatory and profibrogenic effects. Diverse complex Ang II generating systems have been identified, including specifically local tissue-specific renin-angiotensin systems (RAS). For example, proximal tubular cells have all components required for a functional RAS capable of synthesizing Ang II. On the other hand, Ang II is not the only effector of the RAS and other peptides generated by the RAS influence renal function and structure as well. Moreover, the discoveries that Ang II can be generated by enzymes other than angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and that Ang II and other RAS derived peptides bind to various receptors with different functional consequences have further added to the complexity of this system. Several major clinical trials have clearly shown that ACE inhibitor treatment slows the progression of renal diseases, including in diabetic nephropathy. Well-controlled studies demonstrated that this effect is in part independent of blood pressure control. More recently, with Ang II type 1 receptor (AT(1)) receptor antagonists a similarly protective effect on renal function was seen in patients with type 2 diabetes. Neither ACE inhibitor treatment nor AT(1) receptor blockade completely abrogate progression of renal disease. A recently introduced novel therapeutic approach is combination treatment comprising both ACE inhibitor and AT(1) receptor antagonists. The rationale for this approach is based on several considerations. Small-scale clinical studies, mainly of crossover design, documented that combination therapy is more potent in reducing proteinuria in patients with different chronic renal diseases. Blood pressure as an important confounder was, however, significantly lower in the majority of this studies in the combination treatment arms compared to the respective monotherapies. In a recent prospective study Japanese authors avoided this confounder and demonstrated that combination therapy reduced hard end-points (end stage renal failure or doubling of serum creatinine concentration) by 50% compared to the respective monotherapies. This effect could not be explained by a more pronounced reduction of blood pressure in the combination therapy group. Although these results are encouraging, administration of combination therapy should be reserved currently to special high risk groups. Further studies are necessary to confirm these promising results. It is possible that combination therapy may increase the risk of hyperkalemia, particularly when with coadministered with medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or spironolactone. In our opinion patients with proteinuria >1 g/day despite optimal blood pressure control under RAS-blocking monotherapy are a high-risk group which will presumably benefit from combination therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEE
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2006
                August 2006
                26 May 2006
                : 104
                : 1
                : e15-e22
                Affiliations
                Departments of aNephrology, bPhysiology, cPathology, dInternal Medicine, eEpidemiology, and fBiochemistry, Gülhane School of Medicine, Etlik-Ankara, and gDepartment of Histology and Embryology, Ege University School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey; hDepartment of Nephrology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tenn., USA
                Article
                93260 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2006;104:e15–e22
                10.1159/000093260
                16699289
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 4, References: 41, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/93260
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Losartan, Proteinuria, Hyperbaric oxygen

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