Background: The vocational rehabilitation after kidney transplantation (KTX) is suboptimal. We sought to evaluate correlates of occupational outcomes after KTX. Methods: We included 336 working-age patients with at least one creatinine assessment in the 3-month screening period. We collected clinical information from medical records. All subjects answered a self-administered questionnaire, and a follow-up questionnaire was mailed to each participant after 6 months. Study outcomes were the Work Ability Index (WAI) and labor supply (the number of days each patient worked in the follow-up period). We estimated the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation. Results: The mean eGFR was 52.76 ± 23.68 ml/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>. The age-standardized employment-to-population ratio was 62%. Comorbidities, self-reported work ability, gender, age, health insurance type, and time since transplant were associated with employment status at baseline. The WAI (38.79 ± 5.88) was associated with the severity of renal impairment, work attachment and comorbidities. After 6 months, labor supply (mean 19.4 ± 9.7 weeks) was associated with WAI item 1 (ρ = 0.22; p = 0.03); eGFR was significantly associated with labor supply, and this association was slightly stronger in patients with physically demanding jobs. Conclusions: We identified modifiable factors associated with poor occupational outcomes in kidney transplant recipients. Consistent with labor supply theory, our results suggest that health care coverage plays a key role in employment decisions after KTX independent of possible confounders. Additionally, our study provides the rationale to further evaluate the implications of renal function-preserving strategies for indirect cost savings and self-reported ability to work after transplant.