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      Bilateral Mastectomy versus Breast-Conserving Surgery for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: The Role of Breast Reconstruction.

      Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

      Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)

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          Abstract

          Although breast-conserving surgery is oncologically safe for women with early-stage breast cancer, mastectomy rates are increasing. The objective of this study was to examine the role of breast reconstruction in the surgical management of unilateral early-stage breast cancer.

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          Most cited references 17

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          A paradigm shift in U.S. Breast reconstruction: increasing implant rates.

          Despite its benefits in body image, self-esteem, sexuality, and quality of life, historically fewer than 25 percent of patients undergo immediate breast reconstruction. After passage of the Women Health and Cancer Rights Act, studies failed to demonstrate changes in reconstructive rates. A recent single-year report suggests significant shifts in U.S. breast reconstruction patterns. The authors' goal was to assess long-term trends in rates and types of immediate reconstruction. A serial cross-sectional study of immediate breast reconstruction trends was performed using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 1998 to 2008. Data on mastectomies, reconstructive method (autologous/implant), and sociodemographic/hospital predictors were obtained. Immediate breast reconstruction rates increased on average 5 percent per year, from 20.8 percent to 37.8 percent (p < 0.01). Autologous reconstruction rates were unchanged. Implant use increased by an average of 11 percent per year (p < 0.01), surpassing autologous methods as the leading reconstructive modality after 2002. The strongest predictors of implant use were procedures performed after 2002, bilateral mastectomies, patients operated on in Midwest/West regions, and Medicare recipients. In contrast to bilateral mastectomies, which increased by 17 percent per year (p < 0.01), unilateral mastectomies decreased by 2 percent per year (p < 0.01). Bilateral mastectomy defects had significantly higher reconstruction rates than unilateral counterparts (p < 0.01). The significant rise in immediate reconstruction rates in the United States correlates closely to a 203 percent expansion in implant use. Although the reason for the increase in implant use is multifactorial, changes in mastectomy patterns, such as increased use of bilateral mastectomies, are one important contributor.
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            Immune neglect: A source of durability bias in affective forecasting.

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              Increasing use of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy for breast cancer patients: a trend toward more aggressive surgical treatment.

              Many patients with unilateral breast cancer choose contralateral prophylactic mastectomy to prevent cancer in the opposite breast. The purpose of our study was to determine the use and trends of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy in the United States. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database to review the treatment of patients with unilateral breast cancer diagnosed from 1998 through 2003. We determined the rate of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy as a proportion of all surgically treated patients and as a proportion of all mastectomies. We identified 152,755 patients with stage I, II, or III breast cancer; 4,969 patients chose contralateral prophylactic mastectomy. The rate was 3.3% for all surgically treated patients; 7.7%, for patients undergoing mastectomy. The overall rate significantly increased from 1.8% in 1998 to 4.5% in 2003. Likewise, the contralateral prophylactic mastectomy rate for patients undergoing mastectomy significantly increased from 4.2% in 1998 to 11.0% in 2003. These increased rates applied to all cancer stages and continued to the end of our study period. Young patient age, non-Hispanic white race, lobular histology, and previous cancer diagnosis were associated with significantly higher rates. Large tumor size was associated with a higher overall rate, but with a lower rate for patients undergoing mastectomy. The use of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy in the United States more than doubled within the recent 6-year period of our study. Prospective studies are needed to understand the decision-making processes that have led to more aggressive breast cancer surgery.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                26017588
                4744797
                10.1097/PRS.0000000000001276

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