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      Cardiovascular abnormalities in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease.

      Nature reviews. Nephrology

      Antihypertensive Agents, Risk Factors, physiology, Renin-Angiotensin System, physiopathology, pathology, complications, Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant, Humans, Endothelium, Vascular, prevention & control, etiology, Cardiovascular Diseases, Blood Pressure, therapeutic use

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          Abstract

          Cardiovascular problems are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Hypertension is a common early symptom of ADPKD, and occurs in approximately 60% of patients before renal function has become impaired. Hypertension is associated with an increased rate of progression to end-stage renal disease and is the most important potentially treatable variable in ADPKD. Left ventricular hypertrophy, which is a powerful, independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, also occurs frequently in patients with ADPKD. Both hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy have important roles in cardiovascular complications in these individuals. Moreover, biventricular diastolic dysfunction, endothelial dysfunction, increased carotid intima-media thickness, and impaired coronary flow velocity reserve are present even in young patients with ADPKD who have normal blood pressure and well-preserved renal function. These findings suggest that cardiovascular involvement starts very early in the course of ADPKD. Intracranial and extracranial aneurysms and cardiac valvular defects are other potential cardiovascular problems in patients with ADPKD. Early diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, with drugs that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, has the potential to decrease the cardiovascular complications and slow the progression of renal disease in ADPKD.

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          Most cited references 70

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          Circadian blood pressure changes and left ventricular hypertrophy in essential hypertension.

          The effects of circadian blood pressure (BP) changes on the echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy were investigated in 235 consecutive subjects (137 unselected untreated patients with essential hypertension and 98 healthy normotensive subjects) who underwent 24-hour noninvasive ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and cross-sectional and M-mode echocardiography. In the hypertensive group, LV mass index correlated with nighttime (8:00 PM to 6:00 AM) systolic (r = 0.51) and diastolic (r = 0.35) blood pressure more closely than with daytime (6:00 AM to 8:00 PM) systolic (r = 0.38) and diastolic (r = 0.20) BP, or with casual systolic (r = 0.33) and diastolic (r = 0.27) BP. Hypertensive patients were divided into two groups by presence (group 1) and absence (group 2) of a reduction of both systolic and diastolic BP during the night by an average of more than 10% of the daytime pressure. Casual BP, ambulatory daytime systolic and diastolic BP, sex, body surface area, duration of hypertension, prevalence of diabetes, quantity of sleep during monitoring, funduscopic changes, and serum creatinine did not differ between the two groups. LV mass index, after adjustment for the age, the sex, the height, and the daytime BP differences between the two groups (analysis of covariance) was 82.4 g/m2 in the normotensive patient group, 83.5 g/m2 in hypertensive patients of group 1 and 98.3 g/m2 in hypertensive patients of group 2 (normotensive patients vs. group 1, p = NS; group 1 vs. group 2, p = 0.002).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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            The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

            A high incidence of hypertension (50 to 75 percent) occurs early in the course of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Cyst enlargement, causing bilateral renal ischemia and subsequent release of renin, is proposed as the cause of this form of hypertension. To investigate this hypothesis, we measured plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentrations during short-term and long-term converting-enzyme inhibition in 14 patients with hypertension due to polycystic kidney disease, 9 patients with essential hypertension, 11 normotensive patients with polycystic kidney disease, and 13 normal subjects. The groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, body-surface area, degree of hypertension, sodium excretion, and renal function. During the short-term study, the mean (+/- SE) plasma renin activity was significantly higher in the hypertensive patients with polycystic kidney disease than in the patients with essential hypertension, in the supine (0.36 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.22 +/- 0.06 ng per liter.second, P = 0.05) and upright positions (1.03 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.61 +/- 0.08 ng per liter.second, P less than 0.03) and after converting-enzyme inhibition (1.97 +/- 0.28 vs. 0.67 +/- 0.17 ng per liter.second, P less than 0.0006). The mean arterial pressures measured in the supine and upright positions and the plasma aldosterone concentrations measured in the upright position were significantly higher in the normotensive patients with polycystic kidney disease than in the normal subjects. After six weeks of converting-enzyme inhibition, renal plasma flow increased (P less than 0.005), and both renal vascular resistance (P less than 0.007) and the filtration fraction (P less than 0.02) decreased significantly in the hypertensive patients with polycystic kidney disease but not in the patients with essential hypertension. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is stimulated significantly more in hypertensive patients with polycystic kidney disease than in comparable patients with essential hypertension. The increased renin release, perhaps due to renal ischemia caused by cyst expansion, probably contributes to the early development of hypertension in polycystic kidney disease.
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              Survival after end-stage renal disease in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: contribution of extrarenal complications to mortality.

              Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) accounts for 8% to 10% of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States and Europe. Progressive expansion of multiple bilateral renal cysts leads to massive enlargement of the kidneys and progressive renal failure. Extrarenal manifestations of ADPKD, such as liver cysts, intracranial aneurysms, cardiac valvular disease, and perhaps diverticulosis, have been documented extensively in cross-sectional studies, but little is known about their natural history. It is thought that extrarenal aspects of ADPKD contribute to increased mortality, yet survival on dialysis of the ADPKD population surpasses that of the general dialysis population. To address this issue, we analyzed the relative risk and causes of death after ESRD in ADPKD versus nondiabetic controls using data from the United States Renal Data System. Relative risk of death from any cause, including the major extrarenal manifestations of ADPKD, was determined as a function of ESRD treatment modality (dialysis or transplantation). We found a lower total mortality rate in ADPKD ESRD patients compared with nondiabetic control ESRD patients (relative risk of death in ADPKD = 0.57; P < 0.001). Mortality rates of extrarenal complications except for polycystic liver disease were similar or lower in ADPKD patients than in nondiabetic controls. Mortality secondary to extrarenal complications was substantially lower than that secondary to cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                19322187
                10.1038/nrneph.2009.13
                2720315

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