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      Effect of Vocalization of the Holy Quran With and Without Translation on Pregnancy Outcomes: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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          Abstract

          Background

          During recent decades, research in Iran in the area of the Quran and medical science has been seriously engaged in. With respect to the tendency toward spirituality and alternative medicine, we tried to find other aspects of the influence of the Quran.

          Objectives

          This study aimed to determine the effect of vocalizations of the Holy Quran with and without translation on the consequences of pregnancy (the prevalence of preterm delivery, caesarean delivery, and neonatal anthropometric indices) in women admitted to health care centers in Urmia, Iran.

          Materials and Methods

          This was a three-armed parallel-group randomized clinical trial in which 168 pregnant women (25-28 weeks) in their first and second pregnancies were divided into three groups of 56 (Holy Quran with translation, Holy Quran without translation, and control group) by randomized blocking. The intervention was implemented once a week for three weeks in the health center, and on other days of the week, the participants listened at home to a CD they were given. The intervention and the control groups all received routine pregnancy care once a week. These mothers were tracked during their labor. Outcomes including gestational age at delivery, delivery type, and neonatal anthropometric indices were recorded based on the mother’s records.

          Results

          There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of demographic and obstetric characteristics before the intervention. In comparison with the control group, the probability of preterm delivery was lower in the Holy Quran with translation group (odds ratio: 0.3, CI 95%: 0.1-1.2) and in the Holy Quran without translation group (0.6, 0.2-1.9) as compared to the control group. However, this difference was not statistically significant. Similarly, the probability of caesarean delivery was lower in the Holy Quran with translation group (0.6, 0.3-1.4) and the Holy Quran without translation group (0.5, 0.2-1.2) as compared to the control group. Based on one-way ANOVA, there was no statistically significant difference between the study groups regarding the infants’ anthropometric indices.

          Conclusions

          Based on the results of this study, despite the lower prevalence of preterm labor and caesarean section in the intervention groups as compared to the control group, no statistically significant effect was seen. This was apparently due to the small sample size.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Maternal stress and preterm birth.

          This study examined a comprehensive array of psychosocial factors, including life events, social support, depression, pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived discrimination, and neighborhood safety in relation to preterm birth (<37 weeks) in a prospective cohort study of 1,962 pregnant women in central North Carolina between 1996 and 2000, in which 12% delivered preterm. There was an increased risk of preterm birth among women with high counts of pregnancy-related anxiety (risk ratio (RR) = 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 3.0), with life events to which the respondent assigned a negative impact weight (RR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7), and with a perception of racial discrimination (RR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.0). Different levels of social support or depression were not associated with preterm birth. Preterm birth initiated by labor or ruptured membranes was associated with pregnancy-related anxiety among women assigning a high level of negative impact weights (RR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.7, 5.3). The association between high levels of pregnancy-related anxiety and preterm birth was reduced when restricted to women without medical comorbidities, but the association was not eliminated. The prospective collection of multiple psychosocial measures on a large population of women indicates that a subset of these factors is associated with preterm birth.
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            Maternal psychological stress and distress as predictors of low birth weight, prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation.

            To evaluate: (1) the associations between maternal psychological stress, distress and low birth weight (LBW), prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR); (2) the interactions between maternal stress, distress and smoking, alcohol and coffee intake; (3) the prevalences of stress and distress in pregnancy. Longitudinal cohort study. Jundiaí city, São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 865 pregnant women who attended antenatal care between September 1997 and August 2000. Measures of stress and distress were obtained, by interview, three times in pregnancy: at a gestational age (GA) lower than 16 weeks, from 20 to 26 weeks and from 30 to 36 weeks. Stress was investigated by the perceived stress scale, PSS, and distress by both the general health questionnaire, GHQ, and the State Trait Anxiety inventories, STAI. The outcomes were: LBW (birth weight <2500 g), prematurity (gestational age (GA) at birth <37 weeks) and IUGR (birth weight for GA
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              The effect of exercise on depression, anxiety and other mood states: a review.

               A. Byrne,  D.G. Byrne (1993)
              This paper addresses the current literature related to investigations of the link between exercise treatments and depression, anxiety and other mood states. Results from these investigations are supportive of the anti-depressant, anti-anxiety and mood enhancing effects of exercise programs. There were considered to be, however, a number of potential methodological problems in many of the research studies; the nature of these were considered. Finally, some possible directions for future research are outlined.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Iran Red Crescent Med J
                Iran Red Crescent Med J
                10.5812/ircmj
                Kowsar
                Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
                Kowsar
                2074-1804
                2074-1812
                18 June 2016
                September 2016
                : 18
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran
                [2 ]Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran
                [3 ]Student Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding Author: Batoul Jabbari, MSc of Midwifery, Student Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9143478379, E-mail: beti_salas@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                10.5812/ircmj.35421
                5253461
                Copyright © 2016, Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Medicine

                caesarean section, anthropometric indices, neonatal, preterm labor, quran

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